2020, Volume:14 Issue:2

Detection of fimH virulence gene in uropathogenic Escherichia coli Using PCR

Rawan Amer Fadhil Alanbari

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of main health problems caused by many microorganisms, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The virulence factors are important in colonization of UPEC, extra-intestinal survival, and creation of cytopathic effects. In addition, the expression of special virulence factors of UPEC can contribute to uropathogenicity, as well as worsening of UTIs. In this study, 134 isolates of uropathogenic E. coli were collected from Baghdad/Iraq through March 2018 to April 2019. UPEC were identified by culturing on Hardy chromo UTI agar and confirmed at molecular level by using uidA housekeeping gene using real time polymerase chain reaction.The prevalence of fimH gene was studied among 134 uropathogenic Escherichia coli of patients attended Using polymerase chain reaction assay, Visualization of fimH gene (bp) by 1.5% agarose gel analysis. By comparing the bands in a sample to the DNA ladder, their approximate sizes can be determining. For instance, the bright band on the gel above 1000 base pairs (bp) in size for fimH. The intended gene was detected in 94.8% of the isolates and absence in 5.2%.of them.

Klebsiella Pneumonia: Epidemiology, Virulence Factors and Treatment

Saif T. Jasim , Ahmed Sami Farhan

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a rare cause, excluding alcoholics, of communityacquired pneumonia. Klebsiella can resemble lung tuberculosis because it occurs with hemoptysis and lesions of the lumen. K. Pneumoniae is an infection hard to handle because of the organism's thickened capsule. Klebsiella is best handled with cephalosporins, quinolones or carbapenems of the third and fourth century. In lung inflammation, monotherapy is just as effective as combination therapy because newer agents are used. Older agents with less Klebsiella involvement were used for successful treatment in the past. Initially, the patient that we attended was believed to have pulmonary tuberculosis and the recommended medication was ceftriaxone monotherapy until it was discovered to be pneumococcal disease. The patient was initially treated with injection, then orally for 3 weeks. The purpose of this article is to address this type of bacteria, its epidemiology, virulence factors and treatment methods, due to its widespread spread within the country, which causes many respiratory diseases and can share with other pathogens such as viruses, particularly the Corona virus, which can inevitably cause death in a particular individual.

Phage Therapy is a Potential Alternative for Antimicrobial Agents

Saad T. Mutlk, Ban O. Abdulsattar, Layla T. Yassen

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

As a consequence of the rapid increase in the multiple drug-resistant bacteria worldwide, an alternative strategy is urgently required. Bacteriophage as a promising approach is used for the treatment of bacterial infections. Both in vitro and in vivo studies are performed for that purpose, there is a growing evidence on the affectivity of bacteriophage to treat infections caused by gram-positive and negative bacteria. It’s killing mechanism differs from antimicrobial agents by rabidly infecting the specific bacterial cell and lysing it without harming the host cell. This review focuses on the use of bacteriophage for the treatment of bacterial infections, especially multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Editing genome of Toxoplasma gondii by CRISPR/Cas9 system

Musafer H. Al-Ardi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

It is well known that finding out the genetic information of any organism helps in understanding how performs its metabolism, and knowing the extent of the effect that gene modification affects the performance of these functions. Many techniques have been used to editing genome of parasites such as Zinc fingers and Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), But the development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/ CRISPR-associated (CRISPR Cas9) system created the quantum leap in this area, as this technique relies on identifying the portion to be modified using a guide from Guide RNAs (gRNA) that identifies this part very accurately. Not only that, but the enzyme present with it called CAS9 works as a molecular scissor to cut DNA at this part and allow the required modification.Since 2014, the date on which the first article about use CRISPR/Cas9 in the editing of Toxoplasma gondii genome was published, after that continued, developed new methods and protocols that facilitate the researchers work, we will attempt in this paper to review some of these major achievements.

Challenges Facing Iraq to Tackle the Spread of COVID-19: An Overview

Raghda Alsayed , Ali Abd Ali, Raghda Makia, Raghda

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

On the 31st of December 2019, China reported several pneumonia-like infections in Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. Ten days later, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the Chinese center for disease control (CCDC). At that time, the genome sequence was publicly made available. The genome sequence analysis of the newly identified virus was found similar to 75-80% of the SARS-CoV clade and more than 88% of bat corona viruses. On January 30th, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a state of emergency due to the COVID-19 epidemic. In March 2020, the WHO raised a state of emergency and declared that COVID-19 has become a pandemic. Unfortunately, Iraq confirmed the first cases of COVID-19 in February 2020. On April 25th, 46,135 tests were conducted in Iraq with 1763 positive cases. Although Iraq is making great efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic stimulating all the available capabilities, such as having a full lockdown and teaching people about the sickness danger, the numbers of cases and deaths started to dramatically increase in June. Now, on the 2nd of July, the infection and death cases were around 54 K and 2.2 K, respectively. Herein, we outline the challenges that the Iraqi health sector is facing to control the spread of COVID-19 with procedures followed so far. This could assist in understanding the severity of the situation and end up with a realistic understanding of it.

Degradation of DNA in Whole Blood and Semen by UV Radiation and High Temperature at Varying Time Lengths of Exposure

Miqat M. Mohsin and Dheaa Sh. Zageer

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation of varying wavelengths on the degradation of whole human blood DNA and semen over varying time lengths of exposure. DNA degrades rapidly when exposed to environmental factors like high temperature and UV-radiation. The extent of damage done to human DNA in relation to time of exposure to artificial UV and high temperature above 100°C that make blood samples unsuitable for forensic analysis has not yet been determined, and using two methods of extraction the organic and kit methods. The gel electrophoresis was used to appear the bands.

Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Soil of Fellujah City

Muthana Shanshal , Saja S. Faris , Omar H. Shihab

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

Inductively coupled Plasma- Atomic Emmision Spectroscopy (ICPE-AES) was applied for the analysis of the soil of Fallujah city. The samples were taken from 50 different locations in the city and at the depths 20, 40 and 60 cm. No Cd ions were detected in the soil. Yet significant contamination was dtected with elements, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn and Cu. Fe concentration value was found to be less than the international average concentration value. The results showed a diffusion of the contaminating elements into the soil ( at 20, 40 and 60 cm) of the sampling locations

Preparation, Antimicrobial Evaluation and Molecular docking of New 2,3- Substituted [1,3] Benzooxazin-4-one derivatives

Ali K. Alywee Al-Naseeri , Hanaa K. Saleh , Ibtisa

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

New 2, 3-substituted benzooxazin-4-one derivatives were prepared by means of a altered step by step proceedings in which Schiff bases were substituted with salicylic acid for a ring forming reaction. The compositions of the synthesized compounds were certain via methods spectrometry as elemental analysis, FT-IR, 13C-NMR & 1H-NMR spectral analysis. The bioactivities for the prepared compounds in-vitro as antibacterial and antifungal were estimated as opposed to two races of gram-positive & two races of gram-negative bacteria as parallel to Cefotaxime sodium as regular drug and assessed versus two types of fungi. The prepared compounds were got to have antimicrobial activities spreading from middling to perfect against of the bacteria strains with good percentage mycelial growth inhibition activity against fungi. Molecular docking displays the critical part while effect of variety of substituents on biological activity while mark the disadvantageous constitutional parameters in drawing medication: A different substitution does ensure additional efficiency in bioactivity.

Atenolol Importance as a Medication and in Industry

Baneen Salam, Emad Yousif , Mohammed H. Al-Mashhad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

Atenolol is used with or without other medications to help patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) by reducing their blood pressure. High blood pressure causes heart attacks, strokes, and kidney failure. Moreover, atenolol is also utilized to treat chest pain and to help patients to stay survival after they have a heart attack. It’s chemical structure sometimes called a benzene acetamide. It is known as a cardio-selective drug and beta1-selective medication too. Scientists have proven in long term investigations for five years that oral administration of atenolol has no effect on hemodynamic. In addition to its role in the medical field, may also introduce several industrial fields, such as water treatment, and also complications with transitional metals.

Wear Rate Behavior of Unsaturated Polyester Reinforced with (Glass and Rock Wool Fiber) under the Influence of Chemical Solutions

Mustafa. Hamdi .Ismae , Faik.Hammad. Anter

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

In this research, the adhesive wear of a composite material consisting of unsaturated polyester has been studied as a matrix material reinforced by glass fiber and rock wool fibers. The wear rate property is compared in the normal condition and after immersion in (NaOH) and (HCl) solutions at normality (0.3N) and the laboratory temperature (25 oC) for 30 (days) and with a fixed volume fraction of (20%). The results showed that the wear rate decreased with increasing number of reinforcement layers before and after immersion and for all samples. However, it is noted that immersion in chemical solutions leads to an increase in wear rate compared that of the normal condition and for all samples.

Hysteresis Loop Effect on Intensity for Horizontal and Vertical Polarization by Optical Feedback

Ehsan Ali Abed , Jassim Mohammed Najim , Suaded Sa

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

The effect of optical feedback on hysteresis loop (HL) is investigated. Hysteresis loop occurs between two eigenstates of the He-Ne laser (x , y) and it changes by optical feedback at angles from 0° to 180°. Hysteresis loop size decreases and increases with the rotation angle (?) of the polarization. Hysteresis loop effects on vertical (?) and horizontal (//) polarization and the intensity for two eigenstates. When HL size increases, then the intensity (I? or I//) decreases vice versa clear. Best results at 70-110 angles from the external cavity (optical feedback cavity), whereas the intensity very high and HL disappear.

Single Beam Measurements of a Sony SVGA Liquid Crystal Spatial light modulator

Salam K. Mousa , Hayder A. Naser

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

In this work, non-linear optical properties of a Sony SVGA liquid crystal spatial light modulator sample are estimated by utilizing a single beam Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm. It was found that the magnitude of non-linear refractive index (NLR) is (0.694×10-7 cm2/mW) with a positive signal, demonstrates a self-focusing phenomenon, while the magnitude of non-linear absorption (NLA) for this sample is (0.0101×10-1 cm/mW), the pure magnitude of the NLR is (0.138×10-5 cm2/mW). These results are compared with past investigations in various liquid crystals types. The obtained results showed that the sample have a high ability of originating optical limiters, switches, and modulation gadgets.

Parameters Affecting Bulk Etch Rate VBfor CR-39 Detector

Khalid R. Flaih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

In this work, the dependence of the bulk etches rate VB for CR-39detector on thetemperature T, etching time t and concentration N of the NaOH etchant solution has been studied fordetectors material types PADC. The concentration, etching time, temperatureand other conditions havebeen varied in the ranges (5.25-8.25) N, (1-5) hand (60-80) °C for PADC respectively. In this case, the thickness of material removed by etching ranges from 0.20 to 6.10????m/hr for CR-39detector.The 6.25 N NaOH solution at 70°C with etching time 3 hours represents the optimum etching condition for nuclear detector CR-39.

Tidal Range and Sea Level Changes at The Area in front of Umm Qasr Port South of Iraq

Adel Jassim Al-Fartusi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

The high maximum and low for sea level in north west of Arabian Gulf in the area next to Umm Qasr port were studied for a nodal lunar cycle that equal nineteen years (1999 – 2017). It was found that the sea level is rising. Depending on, the sea level monitoring of the nineteen years’ interval, the essential characteristics of Umm Qasr's tidal range have been identified. This study addressed the problems of the collective impact of tides and meteorological elements at sea level, more precise characterization is given to this phenomenon through defining the frequency division for the tidal sea level, where it was found that the prevailing range within the two values are (3.0 - 4.0m), while the actual average tide is (3.908m). In addition, was comparing the calculated and registered range of the tide through the study period was found that the recorded range exceeded the calculated range and this increase due to meteorological elements which increases the effectiveness in the summer months in the study area.

Using Hierarchical Compatibility Tables to Study the Factors Affecting the Iraqi Dinar Exchange Rate for The Period (2011 – 2018)

Muna T. Ghafil , Wafaa A. Ashour

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

The exchange rate is of great importance as it is a link between the local economy and the global economy, and there are many factors that determine the trends of the Iraqi dinar exchange rate against the US dollar. And measuring the extent of the impact of each factor, and the results have shown that the most affecting factor in the exchange rate is the annual inflation rate, where its impact ranges between (1-4) times that of revenue, surplus or deficit, and the interest rate, which shows a clear difference in that effect

Numerical Methods on the Triple Informative Prior Distribution for the Failure Rate Basic Gompertz Model

Nadia J. Fezaa Al-Obedy , Amal A. Mohammed , Sudad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

In this paper, it has been dealt with basic Gompertz distribution. The maximum likelihood, Bayes methods of estimation were used to estimate the unknown shape parameter. The failure rate (hazard) function with the least loss was found using different priors (Gamma, exponential, chi-square and triple prior) under symmetric loss function (Degroot loss function). A comparison was made about the performance of these estimators with the numerical solution that was found using expansion methods (Bernstein polynomial and power function) which was applied to find the failure rate function numerically. The proficiency test of the proposed methods was conducted with a number of test examples. Finally, for computations the Matlab (R2015b) is used.

A Framework for QKD-based Electronic Voting

Ibrahim Saud Khaleel , Sufyan T. Faraj Al-Janabi ,

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science , Volume:14 Issue:2

This paper deals with the security aspect of electronic voting (e-voting) by introducing quantum key distribution (QKD) to the e-voting process. This can offer an extremely high level of security that can be very beneficial for some significant e-voting tasks. Moreover, a framework for the integration of the QKD with the e-voting system is proposed. The Helios voting system, which is considered as one of the open-source and major voting systems, has been chosen for this integration. Investigation of the main design aspects of building a QKD-based e-voting system has been done. Thus, the expected advantages and limitations of the proposal are discussed and analyzed.