About Journal

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science (JUAPS) is dedicated to publish research papers from all disciplines of pure science. Subject areas cover, but are not limited to, physics, chemistry, biology, environmental sciences, Earth sciences, biotechnology, nanotechnology, mathematics and computer science. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed journal. The first issue was published in 2007. Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science (JUAPS) has 2 issues per year. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence....
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A review article: Drug delivery systems, preparation techniques, and biological applications using nanoemulsion as a novel platform

Sulaf Mohammed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176423

Nanotechnology, particularly nanoemulsions (NEs), is an essential topic that has piqued the interest of researchers over the years. These significant molecules feature a spherical solid structure, a lipophilic amorphous negative charge surface, with small droplet size, and a large surface area, all of which contribute to the promising future of nanomedicine and the importance of NEs in a variety of sectors. The advantages and disadvantages of the components, preparation, characterization, assessment, and applications as a delivery medication system are summarized in this review paper. There are two different methods for NEs preparation: the high and low energy methods. In high energy methods, high-pressure homogenization, ultrasonication micro fluidization, and Spontaneous emulsification are described thoroughly. Low energy approaches emphasize phase inversion temperature, solvent evaporation technology, and hydrogel technologies. Low-energy procedures should be preferred over high-energy methods since they utilize less energy and do not necessitate the use of specific instruments. The transdermal application, aerosolized, ingestible NEs, and parenteral techniques are the four primary lines of biomedical uses of NEs as a delivery strategy. To summarize, these novel strategies are very promising, but additional research is needed to fully understand the relationship between NE formulation and physiological and pathological problems associated with diverse preparation, characterization, and administration routes.

Isolation and identification of the chemical composition of Salvia Species growing in Iraq by GC-MS

Khader Alzawi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176429

In this research, the chemical composition of six species of Salvia were studied, wild grown (Salvia multicaulis, Salvia indica, Salvia spinosa, Salvia reuterana, and Salvia russellii) collected from different cities in the Kurdistan region, and cultured (Salvia officinalis) collected from Ramadi city. Study of the chemical components of the aerial parts (stem and leaves) was achieved by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS), the chemical study showed important variations in the content of chemical compounds and their concentration, the most quantitative chemical compounds in Salvia multicaulis were (9-Octadecenoic acid 20.15%, cis-Vaccenic acid 14.2% and Ethanone 9.24%), in Salvia indica (Methyl β-D-galactopyranoside 18.3%, 9-Octadecenoic acid 17.4%, and cis-Vaccenic acid 11.0%), in Salvia spinosa (Oleic acid 30.1%, 11-Octadecenoic acid 6.4% and β-Eudesmol 6.3%), in Salvia reuterana (9-Octadecenoic acid 19.1%, Oleic acid 13.2% and Hexadecanoic acid 6.41%) in Salvia russellii (N,N,N-Trimethyl-1,4- phenylenediamine 16.5%, Ethyl α-D-glucopyranoside 9.33% ، cis-Vaccenic acid 5.86% ،), and in Salvia officinalis (Camphor 22.84%, 1-Naphthalenepropanol 20.81% and 4-Amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid 9.64%).

Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants in Stressed Plants: A Review

Hiba Abdulfatah

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 25-37
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176435

Plants are exposed to different ecological stress during their life cycle, and because of these tensions, free radicals are shaped. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) have a fundamental ability to support typical plant improvement and stress tolerance. The disruption of the proportionality of ROS generation and antioxidant defense systems is one of the primary effects of biotic and abiotic stress, resulting in an excess of ROS buildup and oxidative damage  in plants. Plants may combat this issue by producing ROS-neutralizing compounds, and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms maintain the proper ratio between ROS generation and detoxification. Ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH), flavonoids, Vitamin E (α-tocopherols), and carotenoids are crucial non-enzymatic antioxidants in this context, with a high potential for performing a variety of crucial activities in plants under both stressful and unstressful conditions, in addition to scavenging ROS. This review illustrates the main roles of some non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants subjected to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses.

Review Article :Nosocomial infections: types and prevalence

Shaymaa H.M Al-kubaisy; Ban Hamid Khalaf; Evan Latef Khaleef

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176438

One of the most problematic health issues nowadays is the prevalence of nosocomial diseases which is one of the most important health problems in the world and till now there are no series solutions. There are several types of nosocomial infection such as; Infections of the bloodstream caused by a central line (CLABSI), Infections of the Urinary Tract Caused by Catheters (CAUTI), Infections at the Site of Surgery (SSI), and Pneumonia linked with Ventilators (VAP).
All these types caused by one or more type of biological agent such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. Uncontrolled use of drugs and disregard for health preventative techniques will result in significant health troubles, such as an increase in antibiotic resistance, which the medical community views as a major concern. The most urgent problem facing the medical profession at the moment is the existence of bacteria with genetic traits that allow them to resist antibiotics. It is now necessary to utilize extra antibiotics or a combination of antibiotics to treat many straightforward illnesses that could previously be treated with simple antibiotics.
To lessen the harmful repercussions that might arise in the future from failing to pay attention to this problem, several efforts and activities must be done to restrict the spread of nosocomial diseases. Also, should awareness the people to avoid using antibiotics unless absolutely essential. On the other hand, it would be advisable to pass legislation requiring a prescription from a licensed medical expert before any prescriptions may be filled at a pharmacy or drug store.

A critical review of organic pollutants in Refinery wastewater by advanced oxidation processes

Ali Al-Sadoon; Ekhlas Salman; Mustafa Mohammed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176467

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), for instance Ozone, Fenton process, photo Fenton, photolysis, photo-catalysis, and photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and photolysis of ozone have remained inspected widely aimed at the elimination of a wide variety of organic pollutants (OPs).  AOP without UV might not attain complete elimination of a comprehensive group of OPS. When combined with UV, AOPs produce additional free radicals, consequently execution improved squalor of the OPS. This review briefly deliberates the individual AOPs and their limits in the direction of the squalor of OPS comprising diverse useful collections. It too categorizes AOPs and lengthily clarifies their efficiency aimed at the squalor of a wide variety of OPS. Underneath suitable circumstances, AOPs not solitary initiate squalor nonetheless might too principal to whole mineralization. Numerous issues can affect the competence of procedures counting the chemistry of water and the organic molecular structure for instance, the attendance of organic content in water can have an important influence. In general, these organic also change toward high redox possible radicals upon crash with additional reactive species and upsurge the rates of reaction, or might performance by way of radical scavengers and reduction the development competence

phi meson electroproduction at low transferred momentum

Afraa Kanaan; Khalid Hamad; Ali Alzubadi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 58-62
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176471

 The electroproduction of phi meson is analyzed. The  amplitude consist of two terms, the soft and the hard pomeron terms. it is assumed, that both pomerons are Regge poles. In the present approach, the two pomeron amplitude for the photoproduction processes is extended to construct an amplitude for the electroproduction processes by introducing the photon virtual mass ( . The  residues of the two poles become functions of ( . These functions are extracted by fitting the differential cross section (  )  of the extended  model at constant energy  to the experimental data using the chi- square method. At each , the hard and the soft terms are multiplied by the factors  and  to match the data. The vertices of the pomeron coupling to the interacting particles are calculated by the dimensions of the vertices which are related to the masses of the interacting particles at each vertex.

A review of computational methods for electron affinity in determined molecules

Adil Ayyash; Dhaidan Kafi; Ahmed N. Ayyash

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176472

Some density function theories ( DFT/ 6 - 311++ G (3 df, 3 pd ) basis set   ) methods  with as  BPV86, B3PV91, B3LYP, LSDA, MPW1PW91, HCTH,  THCTH, PBE1PBE, PBEPBE, and T PSSTPSS  with Hartree– Fock (HF) and Ab initio methods. These calculations were  at  quadratic -  complete basis set (CBS-  Q method ).  Results of these studies  appear that DFT results overestimate  and Hartree– Fock results underestimate of EA’s values as compared  with experimental calculations. Good convergence with experimental studies  of electron affinities  in density functional theory methods. Electron affinities of LiBr, NaBr, F2 and OH diatomic molecules  have been calculated  using   methods above.  The electron affinity values that have been extended using THCTH method are overvalued to OH and F2 compounds and dropped to NaBr and LiBr compounds. Also CBS-Q theory or method provides good calculations for OH, LiBr and NaBr molecules, therefore, the electron affinity result is lower than data in  experiment one, by ( 1 eV) that in cases of  F2  moelcule.

Review Article : Applicable methods of evaluating peak area of gamma ray spectra

Thaer Laftah Al-Musawi; Shawkat Jubair; Zakariya Yahia Sulaiman

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176474

Gamma ray spectra have interesting information about energy and intensity of gamma photons. Normally, this information is available in the peak area and background region. A full energy peak sits on a background continuum and produced by full energy absorption of high energy photons, while background region is produced by Compton scattering of the photons. The most essential concern of errors is in the method of determining the events in both peak and background areas. The uncertainty is low when the background counts are small relative to the peak counts. However, it becomes high when the counts of the peak area are low with respect to that of background. The detection threshold for the peak is ultimately determined by the uncertainty in the background counts. This depends on the technique used and the form of the produced spectra. This paper reviews different methods of determining peak area and their associated uncertainties in terms of the principle and application of the techniques used.

Optimized Trigonometric Spline Function with Conjugate GradientMethod for Solving FDEs

Faraidun Hamasalh; Gulnar W. Sadiq; Emad S. Salam

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 84-91
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176477

We investigate the non-polynomial spline function to solve the fractional differential equations with the conformable conjugate gradient method.  The fractional derivative was described using the Caputo fractional derivative to construct the spline scheme with polynomial fractional order. Therefore, transform the problem to an equivalent iterative linear system that can be solved by Gauss-Seidel and conjugate gradient methods. For the given spline function, error bounds were studied and a stability analysis was completed, the error estimation is also calculated as different values of (n) depend on the step size oh (h). Numerical examples with known analytical solutions are shown to verify the method's accuracy. The outcomes are in satisfactory correlation with the exact answers according to the numerical experiments. Moreover, the convergence analysis was investigated with the drive some theorems. Also, the procedure is explained in depth and supported by computational examples and the results show that the fractional spline function which interpolates data is productive and profitable in solving unique problems and compare with the exact solutions.

On Better Approximation of the Squared Bernstein Polynomials

Rafah Katham; Ali Mohammad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 92-98
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176478

The present paper is defined a new better approximation of the squared Bernstein polynomials. This better approximation has been built on a positive function  defined on the interval [0,1] which has some properties. First, the moderate uniform convergence theorem for a sequence of linear positive operators (the generalization of the Korovkin theorem) of these polynomials is improved. Then, the rate of convergence of these polynomials corresponding to the first and second modulus of continuity and Ditzian- Totik modulus of smoothness is given. Also, the quantitative Voronovskaja and the Grüss- Voronovskaja theorems are discussed. Finally, some numerically applied for these polynomials are given by choosing a test function  and two different  functions show the effect of the different chosen functions .  It turns the new better approximation of the squared Bernstein polynomials gives us a better numerical result than the numerical results of both the classical Bernstein polynomials and the squared Bernstein polynomials. MSC 2010. 41A10, 41A25, 41A36.

Double Intuitionistic Open Sets with Some Applications

Asmaa Raoof; Taha H. Jassim

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 99-107
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176496

The purpose of this work is to presents a new class of open sets namely Double intuitionistic open sets. The relationships between the Double intuitionistic open and the Double intuitionistic sets are studied including the Double intuitionistic interior set, Double  intuitionistic closure set and Double intuitionistic limit point in Double intuitionistic topological spaces were presented and various examples and many observations were presented for each concept, also the definitions of the paired set were presented in general topological spaces Therefore, we generalize it to the Double intuitionistic topological spaces with the presentation of the basic theorem of this new space, and many of the basic characteristics and properties related to these concepts that are presented in the third section as evidence with many examples, taking into account that the opposite is not true for each evidence for these characteristics, which was presented and what we note in the fourth section.

Central Kurdish Automatic Speech Recognition using Deep Learning

Abdulhady Abdullah; Hadi Veisi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 108-118
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176500

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) as an interesting field of speech processing, is nowadays utilized in real applications which are implemented using various techniques. Amongst them, the artificial neural network is the most popular one. Increasing the performance and making these systems robust to noise are among the current challenges. This paper addresses the development of an ASR system for the Central Kurdish language (CKB) using a transfer learning of Deep Neural Networks (DNN). The combination of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) for extracting features of speech signals, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) with Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) output layer is used to create an Acoustic Model (AM) on the AsoSoft CKB speech dataset.  Also, we have used the N-gram language model on the collected large text dataset which includes about 300 million tokens. The text corpus is also used to extract a dynamic lexicon model that contains over 2.5 million CKB words. The obtained results show that the use of a DNN improves the results compared to classical statistics modules. The proposed method achieves a 0.22%-word error rate by combining transfer learning and language model adaptation. This result is superior to the best-reported result for the CKB.

Central Kurdish Sentiment Analysis Using Deep Learning

Kozhin Awlla; Hadi Veisi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 119-130
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176501

Sentiment Analysis (SA) as a type of opinion mining and as a more general topic than polarity detection, is widely used for analyzing user's reviews or comments of online expressions, which is implemented using various techniques among which the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is the most popular one. This paper addresses the development of an SA system for the Central Kurdish language (CKB) using deep learning. Increasing the efficiency and strengthening of the SA system relies on a robust language model. In addition, for creating and training a robust language model, collecting a large amount of text corpus is required and we have created a corpus of size 300 million tokens for CKB. Also, to train the SA model, we collected 14,881 comments on Facebook, then they are labeled manually. The combination of Word2Vec for the language model and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) for the classifier are used to create an SA model on the CKB SA dataset. These deep learning-based techniques are the most well-known methods in this field which have received high performance in SA for various languages. The performance of the proposed method for 3 classes SA is %71.35 accuracy. This result is superior to the best-reported result for CKB.

A linear relation to calculate one particle expectation value for 1S2 configuration for 2< Z <100


Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 51-56
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.63150

One particle expectation value for 1S2 configuration for Z =2 to 10 are evaluated by using Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) wavefunction. A linear relation are determined to describe these results, and this relation have tested to check its ability to calculate one particle expectation value for atoms with higher atomic numbers (Z = 2 to 100). Results are in good agreement with calculations given by [S.L. Saito Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables95, (2009) ,836-870] for Z<20.

Compared Some Water Characteristics of Tigris River With Euphrates River

Sabah Obaid Hamad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2015, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 191-200
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2015.127644

: A number of physical and chemical ambient water characteristics of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were studied on a monthly basis over the year (2011). Samples through 61 sampling station was collected, which distributed by 39 stations along the Tigris river and 22 station along the Euphrates river. Samples collected were analyzed to find a number of variables. The variables measured include cations group (Ca, Mg Mg, Na Na), anions group (Cl, SO4), nitrate NO3, phosphate PO4, total dissolved solids TDS, in addition to measuring pH.Data were analyzed statistically to extract the results. Results showed that average concentrations of calcium ions to the Tigris River 69 mg /L, and the Euphrates River 139 mg /L. The average concentration of magnesium ions of the Tigris River is 34 mg /L, while of the Euphrates River is 67 mg /L. Average concentration of sodium ions of the Tigris River is 58 mg /L, and the Euphrates River is 247 mg /L. Average concentration of sulfate ions of the Tigris River is 154 mg /L, and the Euphrates River is 425 mg /L. Average concentration of chloride ions of the Tigris River is 98 mg / L, and the Average of the Euphrates River is 375 mg /L. Average concentration of nitrate ions of the Tigris River is 3.48 mg /L and the same average value registered to the Euphrates River. Phosphate ions concentration rate of the Tigris River is 0.24 mg / L, and the Euphrates River is 0.20 mg /L. Average concentration of total dissolved solids of the Tigris River is 530 mg / L, while the Euphrates River is 1419 mg /L. Average pH value of the water for the Tigris River is 7.6 and 7.8 for Euphrates River. Water quality of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers varies from one section to another. Water quality is better in the upstream sections of the rivers. There is a general trend to increase salinity and degradation of water quality whenever river stream Turn south because of decreasing water level and accumulation of pollution loads. Water quality of the Tigris generally better than the quality of waters of the Euphrates, where many tributaries supply Tigris river with freshwater inside Iraqi territory while Euphrates River exposed to different effluent inside Syrian territory before entering the Iraqi border. Recorded values of most variables measured of the Euphrates river greater than the values of Tigris River at the beginning of the entry of the rivers into the Iraqi border. Euphrates River compared with the Tigris River was exposed to different effluent discharges especially agricultural discharge in the central and southern regions in addition to changing hydrological conditions.

Effect Of Whey Protein Supplement On Biochemical Parameters in Building Body Athletes

Amal K. Abbas; Qasim M. Fathi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145232

This study was conducted to investigate the adverse effect of whey protein supplement taken by athletes on some biochemical parameters which include B.urea, creatinine, uric acid and lipids profile, LDH enzyme and C-reactive protein. Seventy-five Blood sample were collected from athletes whose take supplements of whey protein (experiment group), and twenty five blood sample of athletes who don’t take the supplement (control group), for the period from December 2016 to June 2017. The results show a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of uric acid, serum creatinine and blood urea as compared with control group. On the other hand, the results show a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of triglycerides (TG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in experimental group as compared with the control group, while no significant increase in the level of cholesterol , HDL and LDL in the experimental group as compared with the control group. Finally , the results demonstrate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) activity of experimental group compared with control group. It was concluded from this study that whey protein supplement had an adverse effect on the level of uric acid, B.urea, creatinine, triglycerides, LDH enzyme, C-reactive protein.

Molecular Detection of fnbA, fnbB and nuc Genes and Phenotypic Detection of some Virulence Factors in Local Staphylococcus aureus Isolates.

Alaa Th. Ahmed; Safaa A. Latef; Ismail H. Aziz

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 8-16
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145252

In this study, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates (32) were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad and were diagnosed by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method for ten antibiotics. Hemolytic production activity and Deoxy ribonuclease (DNase) production ability were detected. The biofilm production ability was detected by microtiter plate method. The diagnosis was confirmed using PCR to detect the thermostable nuclease gene (nuc). Then, PCR technique was used to detect the fibronectin binding protein A and fibronectin binding protein B genes (fnbA and fnbB respectively).
The results showed a high prevalence (78%) of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, Imipenem and vancomycin were the most affective antibacterial agents tested. All isolates produced DNase enzyme . On blood agar plate, 65.6% of isolates produced β-hemolysis zones while (34.4%) of isolates did not produce any hemolytic zone. The results of biofilm production assay showed that 41% of isolates gave a weak positive results. All isolates (100%) that had been previously diagnosed as S. aureus by routinely used methods harbored the nuc gene. fnbA and fnbB were found in (100%) and (25%) of isolates respectively.
Conclusion: Molecular detection of nuc gene by PCR has high specificity for identifying S. aureus with a low cost which requires less time as compared with biochemical methods. fnbA and fnbB genes are important virulence factors of S. aureus. fnbA gene is the highest prevalence of toxinogenic and can be used as a genetic marker for diagnosis of local S. aureus isolates while fnbB gene does not play an important role in infection of S. aureus.

Scientific Astronomical Criteria for the Crescent Visibility and Actual sighting.

Majeed M. Jarad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2008, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2008.15583

The main goal to which we aspire is to reach a unified scientific astronomical
criteria in order to determine the possibility of a sighting of the crescent newborn which
support by the majority of astronomers and scholars of religion in order to work on the
standardization of our events Islamic religious sites, as is the case in determining the
beginning of the holy month of Dhul Hijjah, which does not differ by two in the Islamic
world. To reach such criteria requires cooperation between the scientific astronomers and
the religious scholars in order to narrow the differences and inequalities that often
happening. The differences could be two days and in some cases three days. In this study
we offer some observations and recommendations on this subject.

An Automatic System to Grade Multiple Choice Questions paper based exams

Ammar Awny Abbas

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2009, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 174-181
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2009.15510

Abstract:The use of Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) in paper based exams is a very popular choice in the international certificate exams (like TOEFL) because it is very fast to grade and it does not let the student write any unnecessary information. In international tests, a specialized machine is used for grading MCQ paper based exams, this machine is very expensive and it needs a special trained operator to operate the machine correctly and efficiently. This project suggests a method to use a personal computer plus a scanner and a program written in Matlab programming language to grade a specially designed MCQ exam test paper with 15 questions with four choices for each question which the student can choose only one answer per question. The program has been tested to detect the correct answers by comparing each paper with a pre scanned test paper that contains the correct answers, many forms of test papers are used to answer different sets real questions for a real exam that has been conducted in the computer center in the Baghdad University and shown to produce results that matches the results gained from grading the same papers manually. The program is written in such a way that it can tolerate rotating the papers in the scanning operation using the process of image registration, any kind of pencil can be used to make the correct answer no matter its color. The program can detect question with multiple choices and eliminate them from calculations.



Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2011, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 32-48
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2011.44100

The vibration frequencies, IR absorption intensities and normal coordinates of the
Corannulene radical cation and anion were calculated applying the MINDO/3, PM3, (DFT (B3LYP/6-
311G)) quantum mechanical methods. The results allowed proper assignments for the frequencies of
the experimentally known, radical cation vibrations. They provided pre estimation of the radical anion
frequencies. Comparison is done for the frequencies of the ions with those of the neutral Corannulene



Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2007, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2007.15277

: Objective:-The first purpose of the present work is in vivo (clinical study): A comparative study of oral and topical Ketoconazole in the treatments of P V and (second) in vitro (laboratory study): To determine the activity of Ketoconazole against M Furfur by (MIC) test. Study patients:- In vivo or clinical study included only one hundred and seventy eight outpatients. Each patient was examined clinically before treatment as well as by laboratory examination.. After treatment, cure was confirmed by wood’s light examination , 95 % of cases were no fluorescence while direct microscopic examination showed cure of first degree 64 % , 44 % , 40 % , 12 % in groups A , B , C , D respectively for yeast and for hyphae cure was100% ,100% , 100 % , 84 % in groups A , B , C , D respectively. Results: - With regard antifungal susceptibility test (MIC), our results showed that Ketoconazole was highly effective against 40 isolates of the fungus with MIC ranging from 0.03 – 0.5 µg/ml. MIC50 was 0.06 µg/ml and MIC90 was 0.25 µg/ml. However drug acts as fungicidal action (MFC) in 19 (47.5 %) of isolates and fungistatic action (MIC) in 21 (52.5 %) of isolates. The study concluded that ketoconazole was highly effective in vivo and in vitro., clinical trial reported the great cure in group A (200mg) followed by group B (400mg), then group C (2% cream) and group D (2% shampoo) was the less cure. Also, great side effect in group A followed by C, D then B.



Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2011, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2011.15498

The effect of copper on some serum biochemical measurements was tested in rats
including some of the key enzymes such as Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Acid phosphatase (ACP)
and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Lactate
Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Glucose - 6 - phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PDH), in addition to measuring
of total protein . These biochemical measurements tested for each group of male rats , treatment and
control results showed significant changes in enzymatic activity and total protein compared to the
control group , where it was observed a significant decrease in the amount of total protein (P<0.05)
compared with a control , where the greater concentration of copper increased with low amount of total
protein . It was also observed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the effectiveness of the enzyme
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations in all treatment of male rats compared with control group.
The enzyme Acid phosphatase (ACP) was the cause of copper increased significantly (P<0.05) in the
effectiveness of this enzyme in all the different concentrations of copper as compared to control . In the
enzymes of the Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) , where it was
noted that increased significantly (P<0.05) in the effectiveness of the enzyme (AST) compared to
control and decrease significantly (P<0.05) the level of effectiveness of the enzyme (ALT) compared to
control . In the enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been observed a significant decrease
(P<0.05) as compared to the enzyme effectively control the three transactions as a result of a copper .
In the enzyme Glucose – 6 - phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PDH) , it was noted that increased
significantly (P<0.05) in the effectiveness of the enzyme as a result of exposure to different
concentrations of copper as compared to control .



Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2011, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 35-39
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2011.44275

This study was performed on the seed of the local plant plantago ovata which grow naturally in Iraq . Water and ethanolic
extract of this seed are prepared. Two groups of laboratory mice are used in addition to another as control. The laboratory
tests are done on blood samples from these mice , included calculate the time of brothrombin , coagulation and platelet
count using different concentration of both water and ethanolic extracts of this plant. The results revealed the water extract
of (20 and 30) mg/ml caused a decrease in clotting time. Also the low concentration of crude extracts (water and ethanolic)
were very efficient to decrease in clotting time, and increase platelet count .
Key words: Plantago ovate,

Publisher: University of Anbar

Email:  juaps@uoanbar.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Omar Hamad Shihab Al-Obaidi

Managing Editor: Alaa ahmed Al-Jobory

Print ISSN: 1991-8941

Online ISSN: 2706-6703

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