Print ISSN: 1991-8941

Online ISSN: 2706-6703

Main Subjects : Physics


Improved sensing properties of Zinc Oxide gas sensor to detect hydrogen gas by using ZIF-8

Ausama Khudiar

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 50-54
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.174837

In this research, ZnO nanorods were utilized as gas sensor materials for detecting toluene vapour and hydrogen gas prior to and following the use of Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) as gas filter. On porous Al2O3, ZIF-8 was deposited and the thickness was 200 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), XRD, and gas sensing tests were used to examine the material characteristics regarding ZIF-8 and ZnO. Thin films' sensitivity and selectivity to different gases such as C7H8 and H2 were also investigated. Comparing with pristine ZnO nanorods sensor, ZnO sensor is highly sensitive to C7H8 and H2, whereas the nanostructure regarding ZnO with ZIF8 as sensor has significantly selective response to the hydrogen gas. The small pore aperture of the ZIF-8 explains this behavior as H2 molecules could rapidly spread across ZIF-8 network and reach the surface of the ZnO.

Investigation Of Electrical And Magnatical Multiples Contributions To The Total Longitudinal And Transvers Firm Factors In Some Positive 25mg States Using Different Interactions

Nabeel Lattoofi; Samaher Mashaan

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.174834

The nuclear structure of the 25Mg nucleus was studied using the shell model and Skyrme computations. For positive parity low (energy states, inelastic electron scattering form factors, energy levels, charge density distribution, and transition probabilities) have all been determined. The SKX parameters were used with the sd shell model. The best results were obtained from HBUMSD, HBUSD, CWH, PW, and W interactions, which were calculated on sd space interactions. For positive parity states, the excitation energies and transition probabilities to the ground state 5/2+ have also been determined. The experimental data was compared to the estimated form factors, energy level diagrams, and transition probabilities. The Skyrme interaction was shown to be compatible with a shell model is used to explore nuclear structure.

Negative Doublet Bands with Different Shape in the 107Ag Nucleus

Nabeel Fawaz

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 55-58
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.174838

The existence of chirality in the negative high spin states in the  107Ag nucleus has been confirmed by the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM). IBFM excited states and electromagnetic properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. According to IBFM analysis, the negative parity doublet bands (3) and ( 4) in the 107Ag nucleus were interpreted as triaxial and axial shap respectively.

Investigation of electrical and magnetical multipoles contributions to the total longitudinal and transverse form factors in some positive and negative 27Al states using different interactions

Nabeel Lattoofi; Samaher Mashaan

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 42-49
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.174836

The shell model and Skyrme interaction calculations were used to study the nuclear structure of the 27Al nucleus. In particular, inelastic electron scattering form factors, energy levels, and transition probabilities for positive and some negative parity low energy states have been calculated. The sd shell model was used with SKX parameters for positive parity cases. The calculations were performed on sd space interactions and the best results were obtained from HBUMSD, HBUSD, CWH, PW, and W interactions. For negative parity cases, the zbm model space with SKXcsb parameters has been used with zwm interactions. The excitation energies and transitions probabilities to the ground state 5/2+ for positive parity states have been also calculated. The calculated form factors, energy level diagrams, and transition probabilities were compared with the available experimental data. It was confirmed that the Skyrme interaction is suitable with the shell model to study the nuclear structure.

Radiation Damage in the Structure of the CR-39 Nuclear Detector Material as A Result of the Alpha's Energy Loss

Khalid Flaih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.174840

In this work, the damage caused by the passage of alpha particles inside the CR-39 nuclear detector material on its chemical structure was studied. All samples at room temperature using a 241Am-Be neutron source with a flux of 5^10 neutrons.cm-2.s-1  were neutron-irradiated. In the CR-39 nuclear track detectors, chemical etching is a critical step in expanding latent tracks. At 70 °C, a NaOH in 6.25N etchant was found to be useful in expanding alpha traces in the CR-39 detector. The track depths of the Alpha particle as a function of etching time for the various energies were increased as etching time increases. The current study uses the nuclear track detector technique to estimate the range of alpha particles. Track etch rates are frequently determined using 2-dimensional photographs of track openings (diameter) or etching time data. The chemical structure along latent tracks and the track formation process were investigated in PADC(poly allyl diglycol carbonate). The findings showed that the measurement of bulk etch rate values by the weight method was 1.42 ± 0.02 μm/h. In addition, the results for the alpha particle range from 4.47 ± 0.05 and 5.8 ± 0.19 μm for alpha energy1.2 MeV and1.47MeV,respectively

Synthesis and Characterization of Spinel Ferrite Co0.8Fe2.2O4 Nanoparticle

Mohammed B. Jumaa; Tahseen H Mubaraka; Ali M Mohammad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 74-82
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172456

Cobalt ferrite Co0.8Fe2.2O4 nanoparticles were prepared using the sol-gel auto combustion process. The effects of calcination temperature on structural, magnetic, and electrical properties were studied. The cubic spinel phase fashioning of ferrite structure was confirmed using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction Patterns (XRD). The size of the formed crystallite of ferrite samples is ranged from 24.530 to 49.067 nm and it is found to be dependent on calcination. According to the images, which were taken by a Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), the particle size increases with raising the calcination temperature. Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) was used to confirm the presence of Co, Fe, and O in all samples. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) was used to study the magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation magnetization, and remanence field for the as-burnt and calcined samples. All samples exhibited ferrimagnetic behavior. As the calcination temperature rises, saturation magnetization (M_s), remanent magnetization (M_r), and squareness ratio (M_r/ M_s) increased. This behavior is related to the spin canting and disturbance in the surface spin. At room temperature, the dielectric loss factor (ε''), dielectric loss angle (tanδ), dielectric constant (ε'), and the conductivity σ_ac of all samples were examined as a function of frequency using the LCR meter. The changes in dielectric properties have been characterized at frequencies ranged from 50Hz to 2MHz based on Koop's theory, Maxwell-Wagner polarization, and electron hopping. As frequency rose, all-dielectric properties exhibited natural behavior.
 

 

The Measurement of Radionuclides Level in Different Iraqi Building Material Samples from Baghdad City

Sabah Sultan Farhan; Tahseen Mubaraka; Mirvat Dawood Majeed; Basim Khalaf Rejah; Dawser H. Ghayb; Hamid H. Murbat

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 83-86
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172457

Measurement of naturally and artificial radionuclide concentrations deposited in Iraqi building materials used in housing construction in the Baghdad city. Six samples from different sites have chosen. (Soil, Gipson, Cement, Brick, Sand, Gravel). The high purity Germanium detector (HpGe) have been used to measure the concentration of gamma emitter radionuclides from both uranium – radium and thorium series, 40K and 137Cs. The spectra for each sample were analyzed for (7200 sec). The percentage errors were calculated. The range of specific activities for studied radionuclides were as follows: The average concentrations of 238U is between (13-70) Bq/kg, 232Th is (2-34) Bq/kg, 40K is (39-880) Bq/kg, and 137Cs is (0.2-6) Bq/kg.
 

 

Some Mechanical Properties Of Polyvinylalcohol / Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles As Thin Films And Solutions

Najla Ali Elgheryani

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 87-93
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172459

The polymer was dissolved in twice distilled water, then nanoparticles were added to it. The flow time of the solutions was measured, then the viscosity was calculated and the surface tension of the solutions was measured by measuring the weight of the liquid drop. Solutions were left at room temperature to form thin films that were subjected to variable tension until they were cut and depending on the stress and strain of the samples. From the results, an increase in the stress borne by the samples was noted with an increase in the concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles, and express the departure from the ideal elastic behavior has values ranging from 3.71 to 54, but quantity pertaining to the ideal elastic behavior has values ranging from 1.2 to 1.0. Increase viscosity of the solutions and their surface tension. This makes it clear that it is possible to change some properties of the PVA by adding zinc oxide nanoparticles, the sum of Huggins and Kraemer constants values indicates that the samples were dissolved in a good solvent, as they can be used in many areas of life such as industrial, medical applications.
 

 

Experimental and Theoretical Study of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Performance Without Automatic Tracking System

Khudir Zarrag; Fayadh M. Abed; Salim. Y. Kasim

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 37-48
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172430

In this research, a practical and theoretical study was conducted to evaluate the performance of parabolic trough collectors (PTCS) of length (3 m) and width (2.67 m) for three solar collectors connected in parallel, and the absorber tube is made of stainless steel with an internal and external diameter (0.028 m), (0.031 m), respectively. The absorber tube of length 11 m, was painted with un shiny black paint to increase the absorption of sunlight and reduces the thermal radiation. The working fluid is transferred through the receiver tube and located at the focus area of the three collectors. The collector width aperture width was 0.8 meters, and 2.40 meters length with rim angle of Ø = 90°, and concentration ratio of 8.02. The collector surface was covered with aluminum foil which is available in the local market (3M SA-85), which covers galvanized iron sheets with a thickness of 2 mm. A computer program in Fortran language was built to calculate the performance of the solar collector. Experimental results of the test showed that the performance factor of the solar collector is less than the typical type, where notes that there is a large deviation between the theoretical and experimental results, especially in the winter, where the deviation in the morning at ten o'clock about 78%, while it was 5% at noon. The large deviation value mentioned resulting from the assumptions that have been developed to simplify the equations that were used in the theoretical side of research, also the reasons that the theoretical results are taken on the assumption that weather conditions are clear sky and that contrary to reality in the winter. ةThe best efficiency of the solar collector was between solar time (12:00) and time (1:00) at night for two seasons, and the obtained results showed that the increase of mass flow rate of fluid from the amount of (0.033) kg/sec to the amount of (0.066) kg/sec increases the efficiency of solar collector, but leads to reduce the temperature difference between the inlet and exit, as well as the results showed that an increase in solar flux increases the useful energy obtained from the solar collector.
 

 

Cs2TiBr Solar Cell Performance Enhancement by Different Absorber Layer Thickness

Saleh K. Mezaal; Nadeem. K. Hassan

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 33-36
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172429

Cs2TiBr6 is a promising material as an Absorber layer of Solar cell. Further studies showed that this compound is more stable, and possess an appropriate electrical and optical properties. The compound of (FTO/V2O5/Cs2TiBr6/CdTe) is simulated for the first time in this work by using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS-1D) program and the obtained transformation efficiency (η) was (10.09) with (0.5µm) of (Cs2TiBr6) thickness. The effect of (Cs2TiBr6) thickness was studied in this paper used different variations of absorber layer thickness (0.5 – 4.0 μm). Solar cell enhanced by absorber layer thickness showed (18.17 mA/cm2, 0.924V, and 86.58%) (Jsc, Voc, FF) respectively which led to increase of transformation efficiency (η) from (10.09 % to 14.55%).
 

 

Hysteresis Loop Effect on Intensity for Horizontal and Vertical Polarization by Optical Feedback

Ehsan Ali Abed; Jassim Mohammed Najim; Suaded Salman Ahmed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 55-63
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172388

The effect of optical feedback on hysteresis loop (HL) is investigated. Hysteresis loop occurs between two eigenstates of the He-Ne laser (x , y) and it changes by optical feedback at angles from 0° to 180°. Hysteresis loop size decreases and increases with the rotation angle (θ) of the polarization. Hysteresis loop effects on vertical (⊥) and horizontal (//) polarization and the intensity for two eigenstates. When HL size increases, then the intensity (I⊥ or I//) decreases vice versa clear. Best results at 70-110 angles from the external cavity (optical feedback cavity), whereas the intensity very high and HL disappear.
 

 

Wear Rate Behavior of Unsaturated Polyester Reinforced with (Glass and Rock Wool Fiber) under the Influence of Chemical Solutions

Mustafa Ismael; Faik.Hammad. Anter

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172387

In this research, the adhesive wear of a composite material consisting of unsaturated polyester has been studied as a matrix material reinforced by glass fiber and rock wool fibers. The wear rate property is compared in the normal condition and after immersion in (NaOH) and (HCl) solutions at normality (0.3N) and the laboratory temperature (25 oC) for 30 (days) and with a fixed volume fraction of (20%). The results showed that the wear rate decreased with increasing number of reinforcement layers before and after immersion and for all samples. However, it is noted that immersion in chemical solutions leads to an increase in wear rate compared that of the normal condition and for all samples.
 

 

Single Beam Measurements of a Sony SVGA Liquid Crystal Spatial light modulator

Salam K. Mousa; Hayder A. Naser

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 64-67
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172389

In this work, non-linear optical properties of a Sony SVGA liquid crystal spatial light modulator sample are estimated by utilizing a single beam Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm. It was found that the magnitude of non-linear refractive index (NLR) is (0.694×10-7 cm2/mW) with a positive signal, demonstrates a self-focusing phenomenon, while the magnitude of non-linear absorption (NLA) for this sample is (0.0101×10-1 cm/mW), the pure magnitude of the NLR is (0.138×10-5 cm2/mW). These results are compared with past investigations in various liquid crystals types. The obtained results showed that the sample have a high ability of originating optical limiters, switches, and modulation gadgets.
 

 

Parameters Affecting Bulk Etch Rate VBfor CR-39 Detector

Khalid R. Flaih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 68-71
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172390

In this work, the dependence of the bulk etches rate VB for CR-39detector on thetemperature T, etching time t and concentration N of the NaOH etchant solution has been studied fordetectors material types PADC. The concentration, etching time, temperatureand other conditions havebeen varied in the ranges (5.25-8.25) N, (1-5) hand (60-80) °C for PADC respectively. In this case, the thickness of material removed by etching ranges from 0.20 to 6.10
 

 

Tidal Range and Sea Level Changes at The Area in front of Umm Qasr Port South of Iraq

Adel Jassim Al-Fartusi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 72-76
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172391

The high maximum and low for sea level in north west of Arabian Gulf in the area next to Umm Qasr port were studied for a nodal lunar cycle that equal nineteen years (1999 – 2017). It was found that the sea level is rising. Depending on, the sea level monitoring of the nineteen years’ interval, the essential characteristics of Umm Qasr's tidal range have been identified. This study addressed the problems of the collective impact of tides and meteorological elements at sea level, more precise characterization is given to this phenomenon through defining the frequency division for the tidal sea level, where it was found that the prevailing range within the two values are (3.0 - 4.0m), while the actual average tide is (3.908m). In addition, was comparing the calculated and registered range of the tide through the study period was found that the recorded range exceeded the calculated range and this increase due to meteorological elements which increases the effectiveness in the summer months in the study area.
 

 

Study of Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conduction of Polymer/Ceramic Nanocomposites

Ahmad AL - Falahi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172331

A composite materials were prepared using a polymeric blend of epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester as a matrix material, and using a nanoceramic powder Lead Zirconium Titanate as a reinforcement material in different adding ratios( 2wt % & 6wt % ). Impact strength, surface hardness, thermal conductivity and solutions absorption tests were carried out for the polymeric blend and composite samples. The pre-immersion results showed that adding the ceramic powder to the polymeric blend improved the surface hardness, increased thermal conductivity as well as reduced impact strength. Immersing the samples in H2SO4 acid and kerosene caused of decrease in impact strength and surface hardness as well as increase in thermal conductivity. It was also noticed an increase in the absorption rate of acid and kerosene solutions in a manner proportional to the duration of immersion.
 

 

Modification of Three Order Methods For Solving Satellite Orbital Equation in Elliptical Motion

Mohammed S. Rasheed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172315

In the present study, a modification for iterative methods of three order is presented by means of mean anomaly to calculate the values of E and e (true anomaly and eccentricity) respectively, for a planet in an elliptical orbit around the sun. We find that the improved methods converge to the true anomaly value E, solution with less iteration. The efficiency of the modified third order algorithms are examined on many cases of the values of M and e. It is observed that methods are more efficient than third order methods presented by Weerakoon [1], Homerier [2] and Ababneh [3] and classical Newton's method.
 

 

Effect of Volume Fraction and Solutions Absorption on The Properties of Epoxy/Carbon Fiber Composites

Ahmad H.M. Alfalahi; Ali kalaf Aobaid; Wa,al I. Ahmad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172314

The objective of this research is to study the effect of volume fraction of short carbon fibers, distilled water and diluted HCl on the mechanical properties of the composite material, and determine the diffusion coefficient. The composite material was prepared from the epoxy resin as a matrix material and the short carbon fibers as a reinforcing material at volume fractions of 3%, 5% and 7%, respectively. Bending strength, Tensile strength and Absorption Tests were carried out on the samples of the composites .The results showed that adding carbon fibers to the polymer has increased the composite material strength and consequently raised the elasticity coefficient and the tensile strength proportionally with the volume fraction. Moreover, the results showed that immersing the samples in water and acid decreased the elasticity coefficient and tensile resistance in a manner proportional to the duration of immersion, whereby the effect of acid was greater than that of water.
 

 

Drug and Environment Parameters of Pharmacy Places

Abdulrahman Suliman; Shida Kaki; Lary Slewa; Hoshang. O. Ibrahim; Karzan. N. Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 22-26
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172166

This study consists of two parts; the first part is measuring the temperature and relative humidity of twenty pharmacy shops and pharmacy refrigerators in Erbil city. The temperature inside nine types of different drug bottles is also measured. The results show that temperature and humidity inside pharmacy places and refrigerators are higher than the standard temperature (25C) and relative humidity (35%) of drugs. The temperature inside the drug bottles would be higher if compared with environment temperature. Second parts, the optical properties of the drug bottles are studied by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, where they are used to analyze the optical properties of the drug bottles. The result shows a maximum value of transmittance ranging from 0% to 88% depending on the types of the drug bottles. Optical transmittance of 25–88% in the visible range has been observed in all samples, high UV transmittance (5%-70%) in %77 samples and infrared (up to 38%-88 % are observed in %88 samples.).
 

 

Urine Crystals Classification Using Image Matching Method

Ziad M. Aboodaa; Azmy Tawfiq Hussein; Abdul Rahman Hammad Jassim

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 38-42
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172318

The Crystalline Salts classification is important for the diagnosis of pebbles in human kidneys. The aim of this study, classified and diagnosed the Urine crystals by using a computer program.In this study, 128 samples, these samples consist of monocrystalline oxalate crystals, ammonium chlorate crystals and cysteine crystals. The sixty samples of crystal crystals were collected to have twenty for each of the types of crystals mentioned above. They were later classified into different groups depending on the difference in form and size. The method of matching image was applied to obtain the results of classification of crystals management which reached 98%.
 

 

Concentration Effect of Mixed SnO2-ZnO on TiO2 Optical Properties Thin Films prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Najlaa T. Latif; Jamal Rzaij

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172320

In this work, the concentration effect of mixed tin dioxide and zinc oxide on optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films was studied. Thin films were prepared by using spray chemical pyrolysis technique on glass substrate at 350 ͦC. The optical results revealed a weak optical transmittance for Un-doped TiO2 at the end of ultraviolet spectrum followed by an increase, more than 48%, at the near IR spectrum. TiO2 thin films revealed more transparent with blue shift in the absorption edge when the SnO2-ZnO mixed increased. A significant decrease in the absorption coefficient with increasing the mixed of SnO2-ZnO. According to the results of the electronic transition of TiO2, thin films have direct and indirect energy gap, about 3.2 eV and 2.11 eV, respectively. An increase in both types of energy gap was observed with the mixing concentrations of SnO2-ZnO increase. In addition, a significant decrease also was in the refractive index and extinction coefficient with the increasing SnO2-ZnO concentration.
 

 

Decomposition of Formaldehyde Using Vanadium Oxide Nanostructures as Catalysts

Safana Hatem Yahya; Mazin Abdulhameed Alalousi; Ismail K. Ibrahim (Al-Khateeb)

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 50-57
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172324

The speed of formaldehyde decomposition has been studied using catalysts (vanadium nanoparticles, nano vanadium oxide with nano hydroxyapatite and vanadium oxide). The catalysts have been made with three different concentrations (100, 500 and 1000) ppm and at three different temperatures (25, 50 and 75) ° C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were used to study the structural and engineering properties of the prepared catalysts, which were nanostructured materials. The increase in the concentration of the catalysts and the temperature led to increasing the chemical reactions rate. However, it decreased the activation energy, which was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. The catalyst NV2O5 showed a better reaction rate compared to other prepared catalysts 100.1 x 〖10〗^(-3) and 112.5 x 〖10〗^(-3) ) for the catalysts such as nano vanadium oxide and nano vanadium oxide with nano hydroxyapatite, respectively
 

 

Effect of Chemical Solutions on Some Mechanical Properties of (Fe + Cu/UPE)

Mustafa Ismael; Faik Hammad Anter

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 58-63
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172329

This research includes the preparation of polymeric composites by (Hand lay-up method) of unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix material and (iron, copper) particles as strengthening materials with different weight ratios (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%). The hardness and impact strength properties are studied before and after immersion in (NaOH) solution and (HCl) solution at a normality of (0.3N) and for a period of one immersion (30 days). The results showed that the hardness and impact values increased with the increase in the percentage of iron and copper before immersion, after immersion, that hardness and impact strength values increased with increasing the iron and copper ratio of the compounds For all samples, but their value was lower than in normal conditions. And also these values in the (HCL) solution were lower than the (NaOH) solution.
 

 

Assessment of CO2 with Weather Factors and its Percentage for Indoor and Outdoor

Khalid. A. Abbas; Abdulrahman. KH. Suliman; Karzan. N. Saleh; Adam. T. Hamad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171890

In this paper, measurements of CO2 rate and its relation to temperature, humidity and wind speed were carried out at 13 different locations in Erbil city during March [ 2017 to 2018], it was found that CO2 rate is the same as global level (418ppm) for outdoor. Measurements of CO2 rates for indoor environment showed that using kerosene heaters (during winter season) caused a rapid increase of CO2 rate in a short time, which has harmful side effect on human health.
 

 

Fe2O3-GaSb Synthesis as coaxial Nanowires for Optical Applications

Sameer O. Nawaf

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 32-39
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172114

A theoretical study shows the effect of the Gallium antimonide (GaSb) shell on several visual properties of the Iron (III) oxide (ferric oxide) Fe2O3 core as a nanowire using the Mie-Lorentz Scattering theory. The thickness of GaSb shell was fixed at around 20 nm with Fe2O3 core diameter of 20 nm. The study indicated that the nanowires of the Iron (III) oxide core have transmittance approximately 95% in the visible spectrum. Absorbance and low absorption coefficient in the Infrared (IR) are observed. Electronic transitions of the allowed direct type by the coaxial nanowire and reducing in the energy gap after adding the shell around the Fe2O3 to energy gap about 1.7 eV are also seen.
 

 

Fabrication of Highly Sensitive NH3 Sensor Based on Mixed In2O3 – AgxO Nanostructural Thin Films deposited on porous silicon

Hajar H. Nayel; Hamid S. AL-Jumaili

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172118

A highly sensitive NH3 gas sensor of mixed In2O3 – AgxO nanostructure thin films deposited on porous silicon were synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The structure of the sensor thin films is analyzed by XRD, AFM and FE-SEM techniques. The nanostructure polycrystalline thin films with average grain size between (93.56 and 57.75) nm, from AFM results. The sensitivity of the synthesized gas sensors toward 400 ppm NH3 is obtained a high value in the low operating temperature, which ranged between (77.57%-98.66%) with low response and recovery times, ranged between (11.9-15.19) s and (8.6-25.22) s respectively. These high sensor properties are due to the porous silicon substrate.
 

 

Drug and Environment Parameters of Pharmacy Places

Abdulrahman Suliman; Shida. A. Kaki; Lary. H. Slewa; Hoshang. O. Ibrahim; Karzan. N. Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2019, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 48-54
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.172126

This study consists of two parts; the first part is measuring the temperature and relative humidity of twenty pharmacy shops and pharmacy refrigerators in Erbil city. The temperature inside nine types of different drug bottles is also measured. The results show that temperature and humidity inside pharmacy places and refrigerators are higher than the standard temperature (25C) and relative humidity (35%) of drugs. The temperature inside the drug bottles would be higher if compared with environment temperature. Second parts, the optical properties of the drug bottles are studied by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, where they are used to analyze the optical properties of the drug bottles. The result shows a maximum value of transmittance ranging from 0% to 88% depending on the types of the drug bottles. Optical transmittance of 25–88% in the visible range has been observed in all samples, high UV transmittance (5%-70%) in %77 samples and infrared (up to 38%-88 % are observed in %88 samples.).
 

 

Calculation of Charge Density, Charge Radii and Form Factor for some Exotic Calcium Isotopes Using OXBASH Code

Akram M. Ali; Amenah Khamees

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 28-37
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171838

This work is concerned to give information of shell model calculations, limited to fp-shell with an accuracy and applicability in the work. The form factors have been calculated for J+=0+,2+,4+,6+,8+ for each nuclei depending on charge density q≤3 fm-1 using the harmonic oscillator potential based on GX1A effective interaction with ep=1.16e and en=0.7e. For charge density, the differences between proton and neutron densities increased with neutron increase while neutron radius increased as neutron number increase as an extension of neutron densities outwards on the nuclear surface (3< r  

 

Structure and optical properties of pbI2 thin film by thermal evaporation technique

Rana Kadhim; Malek A.H. Muhi; Aus A. Najim

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 37-42
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171794

In this search structural, optical and electrical properties were studied by preparing a sample of lead iodide applied to glass bases by thermal evaporation process. The film showed a hexagonal crystalline shape. The value of the energy gap for a sample of 200 nm thickness is 2.9051 eV the intensity is at the plane (003) it’s equal 12.5 nm in this research the value of the energy gap was (2.15eV-2.33) eV and the electrical properties were studied for a sample of. The measurements were made for the electrical conductivity, mobility, carrier’s concentration and finally the Hall coefficient. The results are (1.038*10-5, 0.6727*10+2, 1.009*1012 and 2.631*106) respectively
 

 

Surface Structure for Silicon Nanoparticles

M.S. Omar; H.S. AL-Jumaili; M.A. Shahooth

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 43-48
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171800

A model depend on ratio number atoms of the Surface to the internal atoms used to calculate the mean bonding length (dmean(r)) of silicon nanoparticles with radius (r) in the range of (1.2nm ≤ r ≤ 10nm). The results compared with the (dmean(r)) which measured from high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) in the range of (r), using AUTO CAD software for measuring nanoparticle radius and the spacing between adjacent fringes that correspond to dhkl – spacing. The results obtained that the theoretical model is in good agreement with the experiment for all (r) range. The lattice parameter (dmean(r)) are found to increases from (0.235nm) for bulk Si up to (0.262nm) for nanoparticles having a size down to 3nm, then it is increased sharply at about the critical radius of silicon nanoparticle (r = 1nm), which related to the atomic surface behavior.
 

 

Study The Effect Of Changing The Operational Parameters Of Diode Laser On The Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Estabraq Mhdai; Sahar Rashid; Yaseen H. Mahmood; Awatif Sabir jassim

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171715

In this study, the effect of laser radiation on the Tribalium castaneum was examined in terms of changes in the external appearance of this insect in terms of shape and color, as well as the calculation of the percentage of death rate due to diode laser irradiation of wavelength (532 nm) and power (1 W) which was conducted at three distances (10, 15, 20)cm and exposure times (10, 15, 20)sec for each distance. The results showed an increase in the percentage of killers of the flour beetle in addition to increasing distortions where the distance between the insects and the laser source decreased and the exposure time increased. Note the results of this laser treatment effect in time stages, after (12 hours) and then note after pass (24 hours) and after (48 hours) and then (72 hours). The rate of killing was (100%) at the distances (20, 15) cm after (72 hours) after exposure to laser.
 

 

Structural and Optical Properties of Ce-Cupric Oxide Thin Films

Isam M. Ibrahim; Jobair A. Najim; Aws M. Rakea

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 83-92
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171601

This work focuses discusses the structural and optical properties of Cerium- Cupric oxide thin film prepared on silicon and glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis technique at a temperature of 200,250,300 ̊C. The results of (XRD) tests showed that all the prepared films were of a polycrystalline installation and monoclinic crystal structure with a preferable direction was (11-1) of CuO. Morphology analysis studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reveals that the grain size of the prepared thin film is approximately (64.69-101.26)nm , with a surface roughness of (0.238– 0.544) nm as well as root mean square of (0.280-0.636)nm for CuO Ce-doping, Optical characteristics were studied by UV/VIS Spectrophotometer at (300- 1100 nm) and observed that the transmission value was more than 80 % at the visible wavelength range. The direct energy gap (Eg) ranged between (1.70-3.00) eV at temperature 200 ̊C and then the values of the energy gap decreases with increasing temperature of substrate when, is measured by UV/VIS.

Study the Surface topography and electrical properties of GaAs:In / c-Si Composite Thin Films

Jobair A. Najim; rafa’a A.Abd alwahid; Hussain khazal Rasheed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 88-97
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171604

Gallium arsenide undoped and doped thin films with 5% Indium and thick of 500 nm by flash evaporative technology on glass substrate and silicon wafers at room temperature at 10-2 mbar pressure with deposition rate of 9.25Å/s. These films were annealed at (373 and 473) K for one hour. The images of the atomic force microscopy of the films deposited on glass substrates showed that the rate of surface roughness increased at the temperature of (373)K while it was reduced at (473)K. It was also observed that the average grain size increased with the increasing in the annealing temperature. The electrical properties showed that the prepared films had an electrical conductivity of 2.05×10-3(Ω.cm)-1and that the annealing led to a decrease in the values of the electrical conductivity while there was an increase in the values of the mobility by increasing the temperature of annealing. A study of Hall's effect showed that all the prepared films have a positive type (p-type) and that the concentration of charge carriers (nH) decreased by increasing the annealing temperature and Hall's mobility (µH) increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The voltage of the open circuit (Voc) increases with the increase in the temperature of the alternation due to the increase of the short circuit current Isc. The value of the FF and the efficiency of the solar cell (η) increases with the increase of the temperature of the intercellular hybrid.

Design and Manufactur of Solar Cell from ITO/ ZnO/ CdS/ CdTe by Thermal Vaporization Technique and Studying the Physical Properties

Jassim Mohammed Abbas; Khalil Ibrahim Hamad; Falah Ibrahim Mustafa

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 98-105
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171609

In this research, (ITO, ZnO, CdS and CdTe) films had been prepared by thermal vaporization, where the films deposited on glass slides separately at (1350 °C) (XRD, AFM and UV) tests were done on the samples, and found that all films were multiple crystallization. And the ITO film was cubic structure at the favorite granular growth orientation (222). The results of X-Ray Diffraction showed that the film of Zinc Oxide was hexagonal structure at the favorite granular growth orientation (200). Also, the results showed that the CdS film was hexagonal structure at the favorite granular growth orientation (002). And the results showed that CdTe film was cubic structure at the favorite granular growth orientation (111). The results of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).Were studied Also the absorption and transmittance spectra for all prepared films in wave length.

Studying Concentrations of Radionuclides in the Soil of Taza Khurmato - Kirkuk Governorate Using High Purity Germanium Detector

easam ali semeen

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 112-121
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171668

The study included the evaluation of the level of normal and industrial natural radiation activity of soil samples using the spectroscopy technique of the high purity germanium detector. 10 soil samples were collected at a depth of 10 cm from the city of Taza Khurmato and its suburbs of Kirkuk Governorate. It was found that the Specific Activity Concentration which is measured by Bq.kg-1 for Thorium 234T, Radium 226Ra, Lead 214Pb, Protactinium 234Pa, Lead 212Pb, Actinium 228Ac, Cesium 137C and Potassium 40K in the studied models ranged between ( B.D.L - 65±17.2) at a rate of (7.46±2.02), (22.2±3.9 - 41.8±9.3) at a rate of (28.88±5.35), (10.2±0.9 - 14.6±2.6) at a rate of (12.24±1.37), (B.D.L - 46.2±4.5) at a rate of (11.58±1.26), (5.7±1.2 - 12.4±1.2) at a rate of (9.11±0.88), (8.2±0.6 - 13±1.6 ) at a rate of (10.46±1.81), (B.D.L - 5.6±1.2) at a rate of (1.94±0.34), (160±11.2 - 264.6±14.4) at a rate of (206.5±17.65). respectively. All these values are globally admissible and do not affect human health or the environment. As well as calculating the Radium Equivalent (74.728 – 46.246)Bq.kg-1, the Activity Concentration Index (0.534-0.336), the Internal Hazard Indices (0.312-0.184), the External Hazard Indices (0.201-0.124) , the values of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air (35.21-22.02)nGy.kg-1, the values of Internal Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (0.172-0.108)mSv.y-1, the values of External Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (0.0431-0.027)mSv.y-l, Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (0.151-0.094)*10-3, External Annual Effective Dose (0.332-0.207)mSv.y-1. After balancing the results obtained with the global results, we found that the levels of radiation for samples studied were lower than their corresponding allowed limits.
 

 

Study of dielectric strength of (Blend SiC) nanocomposites

Jaafar K. Ch. Al-Suwaydawei; Ahmad H. M. Al-Falahi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2018, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 106-111
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.171613

A nanocomposite materials were prepared based on polymeric blend[ 80% Ep + 20% UPE], supported by nanosilicon Carbide (SiC) , of crystalline size (≈ 50 nm) with weight percentages[ 2, 4 and 6 Wt% ]. Dielectric strength for the blend and composites samples before and after immersion in water for 11 weeks. The results showed that the dielectric strength decreases with average the rise of voltage decreasing , and variation form nonlinearly with samples thickness . While the dielectric strength increased with increasing the addition of ratio Wt%. On the other hand , immersing the samples in the water caused a clear reduction of the dielectric strength for each of the blend and composite.
 

 
 

Improvement some physical properties of nanocomposites reinforced by Iraqi nanoclays

Khalid M. Khaleefah; Balkees M.Dhiaa; Tariq Abd Al-jalil

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 77-83
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145552

The current investigation includes the develolpment of Iraq clay to get nano structures composition and vising them as reinforced materials for Epoxy resin with weight fractions (5% , 3%, 1%).The studied speciment where prepared by manual molding method. Some Physical tests where carried out( Diffusions and Thermal conductivity ), the results showed notable improvements of the composites properties by nano particles.

Preparation of composites from Nano clays with Epoxy resin and development some of their Mechanical properties

Khalid M. Khaleefah; Balkees M.Dhiaa; Tariq A. Al-Ani

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 96-101
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145554

The present research includes improvement of Iraq clay to get nano structures composition and use them as reinforcement materials with Epoxy resin with weight fractions (5% , 3%, 1%),and samples of research where prepared by manual molding method. Mechanical tests where carried out( Tensile, Impact ,Hardness, Compression and Bending ). The results showed significant improvements in the properties of the prepared Nano composites.

Layer Exchange Effect of Different Fibers on Modulus of Elasticity and Dielectric Constant For Some Fibrous Composites.

Faik Hammad Anter; Noor Sadi Saleh

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 104-110
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145243

The aim of this research is to prepare materials overlays way the molding hand of strengthening the epoxy resin fiber glass type (E-glass) fibers and carbon fiber (chopped carbon) section and fractures volumetric (20%, 30%, 40%) were measured modulus of elasticity and the dielectric constant and explained the practical consequences that the modulus of elasticity decreases with increasing volume fraction as well as the dielectric constant

Effect of number of Kevlar fiber layers on bending property of thermoplast blend

Faik Hammad Anter; Khamees Dhari Mahmoud

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 111-116
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145244

This research includes preparation hybrid material by reinforcing the blend (EP80%+UPE20%) with number of Kevlar fiber layers by hand lay-up method and volume fraction 30% . Bending property was studied at room temperature before and after (UV) irradiation Expermental results showed that ,the value of deflection decreases with increasing the number of reinforcing Kevlar fiber layers while modulus of elasticity increases with increasing the number of reinforcing layers before and after UV irradiation .

The Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on the Electrical Breakdown and Hardness Properties of (Epoxy/Aluminum ,Nickel) Composites.

Ahmed Jubair Jaffal; Faik Hammad Anter

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 92-97
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145241

This work includes preparation particles composite materials by adding Aluminum particles (Al) , Nickel particles (Ni) and mixture of (Al +Ni) particles with grain size (40 m) to Epoxy resin with weight fractions (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%).
Experimental results showed that, the values of electrical break down decrease with increasing of the weight fraction of additive particles for all samples in normal condition, the same case for other samples which reinforced with (Ni) particles or (Al+Ni) particles after irradiation the samples by (UV) , as well as the hardness value increases with increasing of the weight fraction of additive particles before and after (UV) irradiation .

Study of Effect Add of Nanoparticals Zirconiam Oxide with Yttrium (ZrO2Y2O3) and Zirconiam Oxide (ZrO2) on the Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester

Husam S. Hamad; Waleed B. Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 83-91
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145240

Nano composite polymeric - based polymers of thermosets material consisting of two groups of Nano composite polymeric, first: is unsaturated polyester resin (UP) which being considered the base material that supported with Zirconium oxide with Nano yttrium ( ZrO2Y2O3), that has granular size (83.98nm), and other group consist of unsaturated polyester resin (UP) that supported with Nano Zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) that has granular size (47.23nm), where the study include impact of selected volume fraction with (0.5% , 1% , 1.5% , 2% , 2.5% , 3%) all separately and for every material support, Also through this study number of mechanical tests have been carried out and these includes (Tensile, Compression Strength, Hardness) which all tests were conducted at room temperature by Hand Lay-up method. The results show that (tensile strength coefficient, Compression Strength, hardness), where it increase with the increase of volume fraction of nanoparticle for both polymeric Nano composites material, while (tensile strength ) decreased with increasing of volume fraction of nanoparticle for both polymeric Nano composites material too. The polymer mixture of polyester basis which supported with Zirconium only shows that it has higher mechanical and physical properties than the polymer mixture supported by Zirconium particles with Nano yttrium.

The Effect of Additive Particulate on same Physical and Electrical Properties of Polymeric Composites

Ahmed Jubair Jaffal; Faik Hammad Anter

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 98-103
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145242

This work includes adding Aluminum particles (Al) , Nickel particles (Ni) and mixture of (Al +Ni) particles of grain size (40 m) to Epoxy resin with weight fractions ratio (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%). Tests which were studied dielectric constant and thermal conductivity . Experimental results showed that, the values of dielectric constant increases with increasing the weight fraction ratio of additive particles before and after (UV) irradiation.Thermal conductivity increases slowly with increasing weight fraction ratio of additive particles before and after (UV) irradiation. The maximum value of thermal conductivity was for samples reinforced with for (Al) particle followed by samples reinforced with (Ni) and particle mixture of (Al+Ni) particles.

Optical Properties Dependence of ZnO on Particle Size and Use in Design and Optimization of Antireflection Coating Performance for UV Spectrum

Asemat R. Abdul-Gaffor; Bashar M. Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 71-82
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.145239

In this study, the energy gap and refractive indexes of ZnO with the change of the nanoparticle size, and put design theory for single-layer Antireflection coatings at a quarter wave thickness at λo in the UV spectrum range of 300-400 nm, when particle size is in the range of 2.4–40 nm. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) have been selected as substrate. MATLAB language programs with version of 7.11.0 were used to describe the reflectance as a function of particle size, refractive indexes, energy gap and the wavelength at normal and oblique incidence which are depending on Brus model and Characteristic Matrix theory as a basic theory.The coating design (Air/Nano ZnO/Si) by was obtained at a lower value of (0.0278%) at the incident angle of 0° with wavelength of 350 nm and particle size of (Ps=2.8 nm).

Experimental investigations of Synchronization in two optically coupled chaotic systems utilizing optical feedback and optical injection

Salam K. Mousa; Qassim M.J.Abdulaziz; Kais.A. Al Naimee

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 49-56
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141589

An experimentally observations of chaos synchronization have been investigated between two optically coupled laser diodes. Two schemes of optical injection, bidirectional and unidirectional optical injections have been used. One of the two lasers MLD exhibits optical chaos due to external optical feedback by fiber mirror and the other laser diode SLD exhibits optical chaos by optical injection from the first one. The chaotic dynamics of both lasers were a function of laser diodes drive current. Synchronization and Anti-synchronization between two coupled laser diodes have been observed, and ensured by different measurements like time series matching ,correlation diagram(phase form)of amplitudes of coupled chaotic signals ,spectrum components coinciding of coupled chaotic signals, and coherence have been used for both injection schemes.

Study of some Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy/TiO2-ZnO Hybrid Nano Composites

Baraa J. Rashad; Ahmad H. Al-Falahi; Balkes M. Al-Dabagh

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 30-36
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141577

It had been studied the effect of reinforcement by Nano Titanium Dioxide (nano-TiO2) powder, Nano Zinc Oxide (nano-ZnO) powder [both of them with grain size of (10-30)nm], and the hybrid (TiO2+ZnO) from the powder above (with 2wt.% concentration), on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity for polymeric composites that it basis by epoxy resin which prepared by Hand Lay-up molding method. For prepared samples, it had been made compression strength, surface hardness and thermal conductivity tests in natural conditions (without immersion), and after the immersion in solution of diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) with two normality (0.5N and 1N). Tests results showed that previous addition ceramic powders improved the mechanical properties for composite materials. The hybrid composite had higher compression strength, higher Elasticity strength and higher hardness, followed by (Ep+ZnO) composite. Also, the hybrid composite had less thermal conductivity coefficient (K).On the other hand, the composites immersion in diluted HCl solution led to affect their previous mechanical properties by negativity manner. The hybrid composite was the least affecting, and the acid expansion in composites led to oscillate the values of thermal conductivity coefficient. At the end of immersion time, the coefficient (K) dropped for hybrid composite more than two composites (Ep+TiO2) and (Ep+ZnO).

Germanium Semiconductor Nanoparticles Quantum Dot Size dependant for Solar Cell Antireflection Coating Applications

Asmiet Ramizy Abdul-Gaffor

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 44-54
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141579

Nanostructured germanium semiconductor optical properties such as energy gap and refractive indexes as function of particle size were investigated. Single-layer antireflection coatings at a quarter wave thickness at λo in the spectrum range of (400-700 nm ) was theoretically designed,when particle size is between (3.6–80 nm) and (Si) as substrate. MATLAB language programs with version of 7.11.0 were used in this study to describe the reflectance as a function of particle size, refractive indexes, energy gap and the wavelength at normal and oblique incidence angle which are depending on Brus model and Characteristic Matrix theory. The result sowed that the coating design (Air/Nano Ge/Si) showed minimum reflectivity value of (0.1623%) at the incident angle of 0° with wavelength of 550 nm and particle size of (Ps=4.4 nm).

Effect of the volume fraction and curing time on thermal conductivity properties for some fibrous hybrid composites

Fayq H. Anter; Noor S. Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 55-59
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141580

In this research a hand –lay up method was employed to prepare hybrid composites from epoxy resin rein forced with woven roving glass fiber at different volume fraction (20%,30%,40%).Thermal conductivity was measured at the above volume fractions and curing time (2h),(4h).Experimental results showed that ,the thermal conductivity values increase with increasing the volume fraction and curing time.

Core Deformation in the Two-Neutron Halo Nucleus, 11Li by Using Faddeev Equation

Waleed S. Hwash

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141528

The properties of the two-neutron halo nucleus 11Li are investigated. The calculations are performed using the Faddeev equation with core excitation and Woods-Saxon potential. The core has been deformed and allowed to be excited to first 2+ state. This model enables to include the excitation of core of the three bodies, while the other two particles remain inert. Also, it is particularly suitable for obtaining the bound states structure compositions and binding energies of light exotic nuclei considered as three-body systems, which given the three effective of two body interactions. Results were compared with experimental data and three-body model. The handling of 11Li with an excited core in a microscopic cluster model was more accurate than that with an inert core in the three-body model. The dependence of three-body system energy on the quadruple of the core was investigated, and the core has an oblate shape.

Structural and Optical Properties of In2O3 and Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

Iftikhar M. Ali; Maisam A. Al-Jenabi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 39-46
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141530

The present paper discusses the structural and optical properties of In2O3 and ITO thin film growing on glass and silicon substrates by assistant microwave irradiation on seeded layer nucleated by spin coating technique. X-ray diffraction study shows that the films have cubic structure. Morphology analysis was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reveals that the grain size of the prepared thin film is approximately (62.56-76.66)nm , with a surface roughness of (0.447- 1.25) nm as well as root mean square of (0.532-1.44)nm for pure In2O3 and ITO films. Optical characteristics were studied and observed that the transmission value was more than 90 % at the visible wavelength range. The direct energy gap (Eg) was found to be between (3.7-2.6) eV, which decreased significantly with increasing Sn contents..

Synthesis , characterization and electrical properties of conductive polyaniline/ functionalized MWCNT nanocomposites

Abdulsattar Gh .Enad; Estabraq T. Abdulla; Mohammed Gh . Hamed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 32-38
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.141529

by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, conducting polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites containing various concentrations of carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNT) were synthesized. The morphological and electrical properties of pure PANI and PANI /MWCNT nanocomposites were examined by using Fourier transform- infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) respectively. FTIR spectra shows that the carboxylic acid groups formed at the both ends of the sidewalls of the MWCNTs. The aniline monomers were polymerized on the surface of MWCNTs, depending on the -* electron interaction between aniline monomers and MWCNTs and hydrogen bonding into interaction between the amino groups of aniline monomers and carboxylic acid group of f-MWCNT. The AC, DC, electrical conductivities of pure PANI and PANI/MWCNT nanocomposite have been measured in frequency range (10Hz-100KHz) and in the temperature range from (30 to 160 C°). the results shows the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite is higher than pure PANI. AC conductivity at low frequencies is independent of frequencies and increased by increasing the MWCNTs concentration.

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF FIBER TYPE AND THE NUMBER OF REINFORCING LAYERS ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC OVERLAYS

FAYIC H. ANTER; MISHAAN K. SALIH

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2016, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2016.135147

This work includes preparation polymeric composite materials by hand-lay up method layers of glass fiber type ( E-glass) and Rock wool fiber at volume fraction 30%. Practical results showed that the surface hardness and impact strength increase with increasing the number of reinforcing layers for the two types of fibers . Also the results showed that the values of hardness and impact strength for the samples reinforced with glass fiber more than that of samples reinforced with rock wool fibers.

BARRIER HEIGHT AND CHANGING INSULATOR THICKNESS OF THIN FILM MIS JUNCTIONS

JassimMohammed Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2016, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 35-40
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2016.135153

Using thermal evaporation, metal-semiconductor and metal-insulator-semiconductor thin-films were prepared. By using experimental I-V and activation energy measurements, it was determined that barrier height ( ) increases as the thickness of the insulator increases.

Attractor selection in semiconductor laser chaos generated by optoelectronic feedback

Salam K. Mousa; Qassim M. Jamil; Kais .A. Al Naimee

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2016, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 22-29
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2016.132708

In this paper, an experimental and numerical study for the evolution of the non-linear dynamics of semiconductor laser has been done under two conditions, when the dc bias current of Semiconductor laser is varied, and when the feedback strength is varied. These dynamics were analyzed by time series and their extracted(FFT) power spectrums, phase diagrams (attractors),inter-spike intervals(ISI), these measurements enhanced by bifurcation diagram which explained the chaotic regimes. The stability states using different control parameters have been demonstrated. The role of control parameters of laser such as: dc bias current and feedback strength is proved in spiking generation and chaos control in the laser output.

Design and Optimization of Antireflection Coating Performance for UV Spectrum by Use CdS Nanoparticles on Si Substrate

Bashar M. Salih; Asmat R. Abdul-Gaffor

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2016, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2016.132434

In this study, the optical properties of CdS as a function of nanoparticle size were calculated and investigated and it's used in design theory for single-layer Antireflection coatings at a quarter wave thickness at λo in the UV spectrum range of 300-400 nm. Silicon have been selected as substrate. MATLAB language programs with version of 7.11.0 were used to describe the reflectance as a function of particle size, refractive indexes, energy gap and the wavelength at normal and oblique incidence which are depending on Brus model and Characteristic Matrix theory as a basic theory.The coating design (Air/Nano CdS/Si) by was obtained at a lower value of (0.0093%) at the incident angle of 0° with wavelength of 350 nm and particle size of (Ps = 3 nm). These coating are promising for solar cell application.

Effect of some different solutions on hardness property for polymer blend composite reinforced with Kevlar fibers

Samah Salim AbdulAzeez; Mohammed Ghazi Hammed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2015, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 192-201
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.175981

This research includes study the effect of solution absorptions on hardness property for polymer composite blends. Epoxy, unsaturated polyester resins and their mixture were used as matrix for Kevlar fibers in order to make composite material that undergo previous test. The composite material slates include three groups; epoxy resin composite, unsaturated polyester resin and mixture of (75%) epoxy resin and (25%) unsaturated polyester resin. All these types reinforced with two layers of industrial Kevlar fibers with volume fraction (20%) by use hand layup method. The composite materials cutting off into small samples to undergo hardness test depending on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the properties of tests apparatuses used. These samples divided into two groups; the first immersion in distilled water and acidic solution of (HCl) with (1.5 N) for (30) days; while the second group leave dry. The two groups undergo the hardness test and the results compared with each other. The results for the first group showed an increase in absorption rate in the beginning of immersion until the day (17th) (the weight became high) the weight became constant. Also, we find that the relationship between absorption rate and root square for time was linear, then change and became curved until reach saturation state. On the other hand, the hardness property for these samples showed high improved when these samples were reinforced with Kevlar fibers with volume fraction (20%) comparisons with unreinforced samples. Also, the hardness property for the immersion samples showed decreased in its values

DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF GLASS BOTTLES OF MEDICINES SUBSIDIZED SOME ADDITIVES ON THE ATTENUATION OF GAMMA RAYS FOR USE AS SHIELDS

ESSMAAT R. ABDUL-GAFFOR; NOOR F. SHAFEEQ; DHAMEER A. MUTLAK

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2015, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 202-207
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.175980

From the idea of glass recycling of  waste  product and  making it as protective shielding against gamma radiation , Were brought the crash of  bottle glass from state company for glass industry in anbar province, Due to the aim of this search is to replace the toxic materials by a new material not toxic on the human. Lead powder and Barium  sulfate  with different weights of (0,0.2,0.4,0.6, 0.8,1)gm were mixture with the bottle glass. Where was the use of the source of cesium -137 in the examination of the samples was adopted the intensity and Build up factor as the main factors to judge the strength of the shield and the results show that the process is less intensity values ​​to increase the proportion of lead or barium sulfate in samples processed for the crach of glass bottles. The Buildup factor values ​​they range between up and down and in different proportions.

EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR POLYMER HYBRID COMPOSITES

FAIK ANTER; TALAL HUSSEIN; HAMSA ADNAN ALI

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2015, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 208-213
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2017.175982

This work is production polymer Hybrid Composites by Hand lay-up method. The samples have done when Epoxy resin was used as a matrix and (Glass، Nylone-6، and Rock wool) fibers as reinforcement materials with volume fraction 30%. Adhesive wear rate and hardness property for sample were studied before and after γ-irradiation with (30 KGy) and exposure time intervals (5,9,16) days. Experimental results showed that، the value of wear rate for samples after γ-irradiation is less than that in normal condition، and these values indecreases with increasing the exposure time intervals to γ-irradiation. Hardness values of samples after γ-irradiation more than that their values at normal condition، and there values increase with increasing the time intervals of irradiation.

Studying the Radiation Contamination in the Soil and War Waste in the Falluja City Using the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) CR-39.

Nabeil Ibrahim Fawaz; Ahmed Mudhafar Ahmed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 98-104
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.124120

In this paper practical study have been made to estimate the uranium (238U) concentration through the measurement of the radon gas (222Rn) concentration for different samples include soils and pieces of metals from different locations at AL-Falluja City which it was became one of the military operations, via detecting alpha particles that emits from radon gas using (SSNTDs) (CR-39). The maximum for the uranium and radon gas concentration has been found to be nearly { (0.0393 ppm) } and { (86.55 Bq/m3) } respectively, in al golan quarter. Minimum has been found in Al gameia quarter and estimate to be nearly { (0.0129 ppm) } and { ( 28.49 Bq/m3) } respectively. There is no radiation Contamination caused by uranium and its daughters in the Falluja City, so we may conclude that this city does not attacked with depleted Uranium bombs.

Studying Some Mechanical Properties of Polyester Discontinuous fiber glassfilled by Al2o3 , Mg(OH)2 and SiC

Adil .S. Matuk

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 112-114
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.124122

In this studying Impact strength and hardness of polyester discontinues fiber glass composites filled by Al2O3, Mg(OH)2 and SiC filers of (5%Vol. and 15%Vol.).Composite fabricated by stander methods. The experimental results showed that composites that filled by these fillers improved their properties and the SiC composites exhibited biter Impact and hardness properties.

EFFECT OF PULSE LASER BEAM (ND:YAG) ON ULTRASONIC SENSOR FROM PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL THAT TYPE (PVDF) POLYMER.

SARA ABDUL-AZIZ SAUD; RASHID KHALEEL; MOHAMMED GHAZI

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 97-104
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.123985

This research included study the effect of the pulse laser beam that type (Nd: YAG) on material piezoelectric, was chosen as the piezopolymer material polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with thickness (9  m), in this test so as to possess unique properties vary rather more from other piezoelectric materials in terms of high flexibility, small size and ability to respond to high frequencies. The laser pulse was supply with high energies of (530 mJ to 570mJ) on PVDF polymeric material. The results that get it show, the shape of signal in multimeter equipment depend on the energy of laser beam. That is because of conversion of light waves (pulse laser) to sound waves. This process is called the phenomenon of the (photoacustic). Where we known the form of the resulting electrical signal for each amount of energy were used.

Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Ahmed S. Obaid; Khalil T.Hassan; Abdul-Muneam M.Ashij; Bashar M.Salih; M. Bououdina

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 53-57
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.123916

Cadmium Oxide ( CdO ) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirm the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

STUDY OF THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN FILMS.

Waleed B. Salih; Jassim Mohammed; Othman Salem; Omar B. Salih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 46-53
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.122629

Thin film of tin sulfide (SnS) is deposited on to glass substrates using chemical spry pyorlysis thin films. The solution prepared by 0.2 M and used temperature at 350 and the distance between the nozzle and glasses substrate 35cm . obtained The optical constant such as (refractive index n and Extinction coefficient κ) of the deposition films were obtained from the analysis of the experimental recorded transmittance spectral data. The optical band gap of SnS films calculate from . photon energy curve. The energy gap was found to be in the range 1.4eV to 1.85 eV.

Removing the effect light from image and human face detection

Abd I. Moslih

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 69-74
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.122632

Recent years have attention commencement in the most of the facial animation applications therefore the proposed technic of the way to remove the effect of light from the image by a series of steps in accordance with the algorithm and human face detection.In this paper, a new method is displaying the removing effective light for human face detection. It contains two parts: lighting compensation and skin color model. First we offset the high light existing in human face images and removing high light and shadow, second depending on the mechanism of Skin color classification and the morphological segmentation is used to detect face(s) after removing the effect light. This part consists of face detection from during face segmentation and facial feature extraction.

PREPARATION OF COMPOSITES FROM NANO ATUPAGATE WITH UNSATURATED POLY ESTER RESIN AND WOOD FLOUR & DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

KHALID M. KHALEEFA; TARIQ A. MANDEEL; SAADI KH. FAIHA

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2014, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2014.122709

The current investigation includes the devolpment of atopagate clay to get nano structures composition and vising them as reinforced materials for un saturated polyesters resin with volume fractions (0.5%,1%and 2%) to increase the reinforcement and bonding wood flour powder had been added with dimaional less than 53 μ with volume fraction (0.5%,10%and 15%).the stadied specimence where prepared by manual molding method.Mechanical tests where carried out( Tensile,Impact ,Hardness,Compression and Bending ),besides physical properties (thermol conductivity ,Absorption and diffusion )the results showed notable improvements of the comsites properties specially that supported by nano particles.

MAGNETIC FIELD BASELINE DETERMINATION FOR BAGHDAD CITY

TAHRER ADNAN ABDUL-MAJID; MAATH ISMAIL MAHMOOD; OMAR BURHAN AL-JARRAH

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 126-134
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.97182

This research is conducted in Baghdad magnetic observatory – Jadriya by monitoring the measured
total magnetic field around the clock for a whole year, for the purpose of defining magnetic baseline in
order to identify the actual magnetic background for the site of Baghdad magnetic observatory. These
observations show daily and seasonal variations in the field according to weather conditions and other
factors in upper atmosphere. These variations are reflected directly on the earth magnetic field.
Therefore, these readings have been plotted and analyzed to determine the magnetic baseline for the
Baghdad observatory site. The average value was found to be equal to (45473.08) Gamma. It was
shown that there is a unique value for each month of the year, that varies slightly according to sun
activities during the summer.

INDUCED PHOTO-DEGRADATION OF POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE) BY USING COBALT (II) CHLORIDE.

EMAN MOHAMMED KHALAF; HAMEED KHALID ALI

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 102-114
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.97179

: This research has been studied the photodegradation for poly( vinyl Chloride) when expose it to the light rays as it mixed with cobalt chloride duo (CoCl2.6H2O), polymer films had been prepared after mixing them with polymer solution by proportions grains ranged between (0.025% - 0.4%) and thickness was around (70 ± 5) microns in tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a solvent. Specimens were observing degradation of polymer films by using light intensity (1.5x10-8 ein.dm3s-1) at wavelength (356nm) at 40˚C at different radiation times. This was occurring in the absence and presence OF Cobalt (II) Chloride by using Fourier trans form infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). During the observation of the growth of the carbonyl Index (ICO) and hydroxyl (IOH), as well as using spectroscopy UV - visible ( UV), as Speed optical dissociation constant of polymeric additives, the results has showed that when the concentration of Cobalt (II) Chloride increased, the degradation of polymer films increased compare to free of salt polymer films. As this accompanied increased in the values of absorption of carbonyl and hydroxyl. It has been noticed that when this increase was a little bit higher when the concentration around 0.4% , which these results have an agreement with optical speed dissociation constant. Moreover, at the absence and presence ofh Moreover, at the absence and presence of concentration (0.05%) polymer film’s photodegradation was studied from salt added as observing the average viscosity of molecular weight, degree of degradation which found out Cobalt (II) Chloride decreased in the molecular weight as the rate chain increased. Finally, polymer films that had been prepared by morphology was studied in the absence and presence of the salt. This study was investigated to find out the amount of energy absorbed by those films and the possibility of cracks in the surface after exposing of those models to irradiation and time of 125 hours.

STUDY THE RELATION BETWEEN SELENIUM AND GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN IRON DEFICIENT GUINEA PIG.

HASAN ALI MUTAR

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.97176

Little information is available on the relationship of Selenium deposit in target organs and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in iron deficiency anemia ( IDA). As red blood cells (RBCs) play a crucial role on Se metabolism during Fe deficiency anemia a lower count of RBCs is featured, we aimed to investigate the influence of this pathology on Se bioavailability and the relationship with antioxidant status. 20 male guinea pig were randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving 100 g diet with normal Fe content (45 mg/kg diet) and the Fe-deficient group receiving 100 g diet with low Fe content (5 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. Both diets were prepared with an adequate Se content (0.180 mg/kg diet). The digestive and metabolic utilization of Se, the distribution in target organ, the GPx activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production were measured after receiving the diets. Se retention increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the anemic group, fact that contributes to keep the enzymatic antioxidant activity of GPx in normal levels and the tendency observed is that stored Se increased in the organs, especially in kidney (P ≤ 0.01) . The lower count of RBCs featured in this pathology (P ≤ 0.001) causes an increase in kidney deposit is a consequence of the lower urinary losses (P ≤ 0.001

Studying the optical properties of tZnxCd1 – x S thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and the effect of annealing temperature.

Ibrahim J.Abdulleh

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84998

The ZnxCd1 – x S (x=0.2,0.5,0.7) thin films have been deposited by chemical both deposition method on glass substrates from aqueous solution containing cadmium acetate , zincacetate and thiourea at 80±5 ℃and after annealed at 150-200 ℃. optical method was used to determine the band gap of films between 3.95 to 4.1 eV. The UV-VIS spectra of films have been studied and the result are discussed.

Laser Processing For Nanoscale Size Quantum Wires of AlGaAs/GaAs

Ahlam H. Jaffer; Ebtisam M-T. Salman; Mohammed HamadJassam

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84996

In this work we investigate and calculate theoretically the variation in a number of optoelectronic properties of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wire laser, with emphasis on the effect of wire radius on the confinement factor, density of states and gain factor have been calculated. It is found that there exist a critical wire radius (rc) under which the confinement of carriers are very weak. Whereas, above rc the confinement factor and hence the gain increase with increasing the wire radius.

Structural and optical properties of Cd0.7 Zn0.3S:PbNanocrystalline thin films deposited by chemical bath technique.

Jamal. F. Mohammad; Alaa A. AL- Jubory; Mahir N. Thameel; Qayes. A. Abbas

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84994

Nanocrystalline Cd0.7 Zn0.3S:Pb thin films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath technique (CBD) at 80±2ºC from an aqueous bath containing cadmium chloride, zinc chloride , thioureaand doped lead chloride in the presence of ammonia solution . Structural properties of the obtained films were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. The structural parameters such as crystallite size have been evaluated. .The absorption spectra are recorded in the wavelength range 200 - 1100 nm which show Optical spectroscopy results of the films indicated that the optical band gap value decreased from 2.95 to 2.1 eV with the increasing of Pbdoping. And finally the optical constants such as refractive index,extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectrics were investigated.

TwoDimensional IsingModel ApplicationWith MONTE CARLO Method

Dhia K. Khudier; Nabeil A. Fawaz

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84993

The location of the phase transition in the two dimensional Ising model were determined using Monte Carlo simulation with importance sampling. The magnetization persite ,energy per site , magnetic susceptibility , specific heat of a Ferromagnetic materials were calculated as a function of temperature for spin lattice interaction in zero and nonzero magnetic field . There is thus a phase transition defined by the Curie temperature. The Monte Carlo method was used to check the results and to confirm the phase transition . The internal interaction results were found to be consistent with what was expected. As a magnetic field is applied, the spins tend to align with it for ˃ and its effect is not significant at a very high temperature because of the thermal agitation. For ˂ , the alignment of the spins is possible only if the amplitude of the field is big enough.

Degradation of Plastic Wastes (PP, PET, and LDPE) for Liquid Fuel Production as alternative energy by Using Vacuum Pyrolysis Method.

Tariq A. Mandeel; Abdul-Qader D. Faisal; Ibraheem J. Ibraheem

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84991

The plastic wastes are the more available material in the environment. These material types are: PolyPropylene (PP),PolyEthylene Terephthalate(PET) and Low Density Poly Ethylene(LDPE). Thermal degradation of those three materials was studied under vacuum environment individually and as a combination of all. The output products were characterized by Gas Chromatography(GC) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red(FTIR). Some of the physical properties was measured such as density, boiling point. The results show that degradation of combined materials was produced liquid fuel compared with standard properties preferable than individual once. A mixture product of same carbonyl compounds such carboxylic acid and unsaturated aldehyde was preliminary characterized.

Structural, Surface Morphology and Optical Properties of Bi2O3 Thin Film Prepared By Reactive Pulse Laser Deposition.

Evan Tariq Al Waisy; Marwa Sabah. Al Wazny

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.85003

In the present work, bismuth oxide Nanostructure thin film was prepared using reactive pulse laser deposition method. Optical, structural and surface morphology properties was carried out and the result insure the formation of polycrystalline Bi2O3 thin film with energy gap of (2.5) eV .The Atomic Force Microscopic Image show a Nano crystalline structure with average grain size of about (75.42 nm) .

THE EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURES ON THE STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES FOR (CDS) THIN FILMS

KALIMAT A. JASIM; JASIM M. SALIH; OTHMAN S. IBRAHEEM

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 210-217
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.83052

In this research work optical and structural properties for (CdS) thin films werestudied .The (CdS) thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis with different substrate temperatures (250,300,350,400) C0 . Such a film was deposited on glass slides substrate of (350) nm thickness . The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than (104)cm-1 for all films and hence allowed for electrons transation . The value of the energy gap for (CdS) thin films prepared by the previous mentioned substrate temperatures became (2.3, 2.45, 2.55, 2.6) eV, respectively.The absorption coefficient ,transmittance ,refractive index and extinction coefficient) found to be dependent on the substrate temperatures . The structure of the (CdS) thin films have been diagnosed by the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) . This technology was applied to the poly crystalline and Hexagonal structure . The results of the X-ray diffraction showed that grain-size increases with substrate temperature increasing.

Wave Propagation in Dielectric Slab Waveguide with two Different Cladding Materials.

Ahmad Hameed; Nabeil I.Fawaz

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 107-120
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.83191

In this study the Ku ــband microwave with a frequencies of (12- 18) GHz propagation in dielectric materials InGaAsP( refractive index n1=3.39) with two different claddings, air(n2=1) and polyacrylate(n2=1.5) , was investigated. Using the cladding polyacrylate gives better results.The graphical and numerical results of the behavior of electromagnetic wave propagation along Z - direction in dielectric slab waveguide in the two cases of cladding were investigated with the aid of MATLAB program. The graphical and numerical results coincide. The modes of propagation have been analyzed and all parameters have been given. The values of different parameters as cutoff wave number, cutoff frequency, cutoff thickness , propagation constant, and transmission of electromagnetic wave have been calculated. The transmission of the microwave depends on the slab thickness and the frequencies applied and it has been found to varied from 75% to 100%. The reflection amplitude inside the slab is not effected when the angle of the incident wave is less than the critical angle, while it increased rapidly as the angle increased higher than the critical angle.

The Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation Method

Faris S. Atallah

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 129-133
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84584

: Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films were grown on glass substrates by the vacuum evaporation technique. The effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of the as deposited samples was analyzed. Structure of these films was characterized by X-ray diffraction . CdS films deposited have polycrystalline structure cubic(zinc blende) and hexagonal (demand) .The grain size increases with increasing annealing temperature. The optical properties of CdS films have highly transmittance in visible region of spectrum and reach to more than 84% . Band gap decreases from 2.55 to 2.33 eV with the increasing annealing temperature from 473K to 623 K..

Spectroscopic Study Of Light Curve And Physical Properties For SN2010jl

Adil N. Ayyash; Zeyad A. Saleh

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 134-140
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.84581

Abstract:In this work, The physical properties were studies for ( supernova 2010jl) - which discovered on 2010 Nov. 3 - depending on (Oort Model ), optical spectrum curve and by applying special mathematical equations. The physical properties represented by explosion energy, initial velocity of ejecta, mass of ejecta, mass of 56Ni, distance from the earth, radius of ejecta, the momentum, expansion velocity and the age. Also, temperature of black body of SN2010jl during photospheric phase were calculated depending on data taken from optical spectrum curve and by applying special mathematical equation. The curve between temperature of black body and time in days were plotted, rang of temperature between (7300 °k – 9700 °k ) noticed.

INDUCED PHOTO-DEGRADATION OF POLYSTYRENE BY USING NICKEL (II) - COMPLEX (NI-BAP)

HAMEED. K. ALI; SAMAR A. ABDULRAZAQ

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 162-175
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.83038

This study dealt with the photo degradation of polystyrene films after exposing them to light using Schiff's bases of nickel-complex, the films were made after mixing with the polymer solution at different weight percentages in the range (0.025%-0.4%) with thickness (60 ± 5) micron using chloroform. The specimens were irradiated for different times using the same light intensity (1.5x10-8 ein.dm3s-1) at wavelength (356nm) at 40˚C. The photo degradation of the prepared films with and without additives were followed by FT.I.R technique for evaluating both ICO and IOH . U.V-vis was used to calculate the rate of degradation. The results indicated that the synthesized complex has induced the degradation which increases as the concentration of the additives increase which coincides the results of Kd increase which followed in presence and without of 0.05% of the added Nickel- complex by measuring of the number-average molecular weight and the degree of decomposition, the chain mean scission and the quantum yield. it was found that in the presence of the metal complex the decrement in the molecular weight M.W) increased and chain scission as well in parallel with other results

FABRICAT & STUDY CU0.5IN0.5S2 THIN FILMS COMPOSITE PREPARED BYPYLORYSIS SPRAY METHOD.

ASMIET RAMIZY; KHALIL TH. HASSAN; ISSAM M.IBRAHIM; ADEAL S. MATOK

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 204-209
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.83046

Thin film of Cu0.5In0.5S2 has been prepared by spray pyrolysis on different substrate of silicon and glass slides (25mm ×25mm) substrate at temperature (Ts) of 300 ±10oC . The thickness of thin films is 500 ±20nm. The morphology of the prepared film showed asmooth formationwith small grain sizes overall the entire surface.This indicates that the formation of crystalline compounds. The optical characteristics of thin film have been investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the wavelength range (300 -1000nm ) . The film has a direct allows electronic transition with the optical energy gap ( Eg ) of 2.9 eV . The broadening of the band gap energy occurs with the decrease in the crystallite size. The papered film revealed a good light trapping of wide wavelength spectrum. This means the film is promising in optoelectronic applications. The electrical properties were investigated using Hall measurements techniques; the result provides an evidence of p-type .

FABRICATION AND STUDY CHARACTERISTICS OF CDO/SI HETEROJUNCTIONDETECTOR BY CBD TECHNIQUE

ABDUL-MAJEED E. AL-SAMAR; RIAD A. ASMIAL; SABRE J.MOHMED; HANI H. AHMED

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2013, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 225-232
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2013.83056

In this work CdO/Si heterojunction detector were fabricated by depositing CdO thin film on p-type single crystal silicon wafers by chemical bath deposition technique(CBD) . The effect of cadmium ion concentration on the structural properties of deposited film and optoelectronic characteristics of fabricated detector has been considered in this work . From the x-ray diffraction result, it is shown that the CdO film has a single crystalline in cubic structure with preferential orientation along the (311) crystal plane. The -voltage characteristics under dark result, it is shown that ideality factor of heterojunction has higher value(n˃1).From current-voltage characteristics under illuminations result, it is shown that photocurrent increase with increasing cadmium ion concentration in solution. The capacitance–voltage characteristic shows a typical abrupt heterojunction. The optoelectronic characteristics shows the CdO/Si detector has good spectral responsivity in visible and NIR with higher peak responsivity at 900 nm were found 0.38 A/W.

Study of Optoelectronic Properties CdS-Si Heterojunction Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Hani H. Ahmed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 79-84
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.81182

CdS-Si heterojunction detector has been prepared by chemical bath deposition method . Structure properties of these films was characterized by X-ray diffraction .CdS films deposited have polycrystalline structure cubic(zinc blende) and hexagonal. The average grain size is 45 nm .The optical properties of the CdS films have highly transmittance in visible region of spectrum and reach to more than 80 % with a wide band gap of 2.44 eV .Electrical properties of CdS-Si heterojunction have been investigated. The I-V characteristics under dark condition depict that good rectification behavior and exponential relationship for forward current biasing. The C-V measurements have shown that the heterojunction were of abrupt type and the build-in potential equal to 1.75V. The optoelectronic characteristics shows that CdS-Si detector has good spectral responsivity in the visible and the near infrared and show high sensitivity, in comparison with the conventional p-n silicon detectors.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF DOPPING , ANNEALING AND THICKNESS ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CDS THIN FILMS

ABDUL-MAJEED E. IBRAHIM; SABRI J. MOHAMMED; TAHSEEN A. ASWAD

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 123-130
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.77627

Include this research studied the effect some Physics Properties as dopping [by C0 perhaps(3%)] , annealing [at temperature (300C0) for an half hour] and change thickness [(160 , 300) nm] on the some optical properties of CdS thin film which was prepared by thermal chemical phyrolysis method .We prepared many modul of (CdS)Thin film (pure , doping , before annealing , after annealing and different thickness). We notice the effect of each from increase thickness and annealing lead to decrease in forbidden energy gap value , while we notice the effect of dopping lead to increase in forbidden energy gap value. Results showed that energy gap value after annealing for thickness(300 nm) for pure film (2.39)eV and dopping film (2.43)eV , so energy gap value before annealing for pure film and same thickness(300 nm) (2.42)eV , while energy gap value after annealing for thickness (160 nm) (2.58) eV . We notice that over properties had apronoced effect on the few optical properties (Absorptance , Absorption Coefficient , Extinction Coefficient ).

STUDY THE EFFECT OF THICKNESS ON STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ZNO THIN FILMS DOPED WITH 7% CADMIUM PREPARED BY CHEMICAL SPRAY PYROLYSIS METHOD

JUBAIER A. NAJEEM; JAMAL M. IRZEAJ

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 138-145
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.77629

ZnO thin films, pure and doped with cadmium in rate of (7%) and with thickness equal to (300,500,700) nm, have been prepared by using chemical spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates with temperature about (375 ± 5 C). Using the solution of zinc acetate with (0.2 M), the ZnO films doped with Cd have been obtained from the addition of cadmium acetate to zinc acetate with (0.2M) too. Structural and optical properties of the thin films above have been studied; XRD measurements demonstrated that the pure ZnO and (ZnO:Cd) films are polycrystalline with (100) orientation and with Hexagonal Wurtzite structure. Furthermore ,crystallized of films increasing with increase of thickness. The optical properties were studied using the spectral of the absorbance and transmission of films in wavelength ranging (300-800) nm. The study showed that the films have high transmission within the range of the visible spectrum and decrease with increase thickness and doping with cadmium, In addition changing in edge of absorbance to high wavelengths, which confirms the decrease in the values for the energy gap. Also absorption coefficient and coefficient of extinction was calculated and found to be changed with thickness changing

Structural and optical properties of CdIn2S4:Cu thin film prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

Alaa A. Al-jubory

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 91-96
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.82137

Cadmium indium sulfide (CdIn2S4) thin films were deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique on the glass substrate ,and doping by Cu= 1%,3%.5% . The films structure were analyzed by XRD . All the patterns of thin films prepared are polycrystalline .The optical properties are studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer ,the absorption coefficient was calculated ,its value was more than 104 that supports the direct transition ,the energy gap found between 2.6 eV to 2.85 eV dependent on the ratio of Cu in the thin film. And finally the optical constants such as refractive index ,extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectrics were investigated.

STUDYING THE EFFECT OF ANTIREFLECTION COATING THAT MADE FROM MGF2 ON SILICON SOLAR CELL EFFICIENCY

A. Y. ALI; N. FADHIL; K. D. SALIM; A. A. IBRAHIM

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 130-132
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.62765

The effect of Antireflection coating that made from MgF2 on P- type solar cell efficiency was studied in this paper . MgF2 solution was deposted by chemical spray pyrolysis method on surface of the cell . The esult showed there is a great increase in solar cell efficiency value from η= 7.5% to η = 21.37%

Studying the Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Prepared by Thermal Vacuum Evaporation Technique with a Different Thickness

Mahir N. Thomail

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.63151

CdS thin films with a different thickness have been prepared on glass substrates by using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique at substrate temperature of 150oC. The optical characteristics of the prepared thin films have been investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the wavelength range (300-1100 nm) . The films have a direct allow electronic transitions and the optical absorption are shifted to the low energies by increasing the thickness . Also the optical energy gap (Eg) has decreased from 2.47 eV to 2.22 eV by increasing the thickness value. The extinction coefficient (k) , refractive index (n) and the real and imaginary dielectric constants (ε1 , ε2 ) are investigated. All of these constants increased with the increases in thickness and shifted to the low energies

The optical properties of 2(CdS)X(CuInS2)1-X thin film systems.

Ahmed Farhan Awad; Hamid Salih Abtan

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.63149

The optical properties of 2(CdS)X(CuInS2)1-X (CCIS) thin film systems grown by chemical spray pyrolysis on glass slides were studied .The obtained results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) structure analysis were polycrystalline for all values of X= 0,0.1,……0.4 , and have many phases with new phase (CCIS) .The optical characteristics of the prepared thin films have been investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in a wavelength ranging (300-1100) nm . The prepares films have a direct energy gap (Eg) its value varied between (1.4 - 1.8) eV depending on X value . The optical constants such as refractive index (n) ,extinction coefficient (k) ,real and imaginary dielectric constants (ε1&ε2) also discussed .It is found that the prepared films are promising in thin film solar cell.

STUDY THE PARTIAL SUBSTITUTION OF TL ON STRUCTURE AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF BI2-XTLXBA2CA2CU3O10+ HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTOR

KHALID H. RAZZEG; ABDUL KAREEM D. ALI; KHALAF I. KHALEEL; NIHAD A.SHAFEEK

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 113-120
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.62763

We have prepared samples of high temperature superconductors namely Bi2-xTlx Ba2Ca2Cu3O10+δ using solid state reaction. The samples have been characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), and resistivity measurements using the electrical resistivety measurement. The x-ray data of all superconductor samples showed a tetragonal structure with a high ratio of Bi-2223 superconducting phase.The substitution of Tl by Bi increases the grain size of the superconducting phase and the density of the pellets. Also give a best value of Tc 139 K respectively .

THE DETERMINATION OF THE OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF THE ANNEALED ZNO THIN FILM AND DOPED WITH CO BY USING ENVELOPE METHOD

MARWA TARIQ AHMED; SABRI JASSIM MOHAMMED; AYED NAJIM SALEH

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2012, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 121-129
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2012.62764

ZnO thin films have been deposited onto glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis method. Spectrum of x-ray diffraction for films of ZnO prepared by concentration (0.3M) has been studied. Also the spectrum shows that the films are crystalline in the structure in the wurtzite phase and by orientation (100) at angle (2θ=32.52°). The optical constants of ZnO thin films (such as refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) within the wave length (300-900)nm are also studied. From transmittance spectrum (in the ultraviolet- visible- near infrared) (UV-VIS-NIR) regions using envelope method. The energy band gap of the films was evaluated as 3.31eV and found that the thickness is 831nm. The band gap and optical constants decreases after thermal annealing in air, also the band gap of ZnO thin films doped with Co decreases

STUDYING THE VIBRATION FREQUENCIES OF CORANNULENE AND IT'S POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RADICAL IONS USING QUANTUM MECHANICAL CALCULATIONS

REHAB M. KUBBA; MANAL AL-DELEIMY; MUTHANA SHANSHAL

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2011, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 32-48
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2011.44100

The vibration frequencies, IR absorption intensities and normal coordinates of the
Corannulene radical cation and anion were calculated applying the MINDO/3, PM3, (DFT (B3LYP/6-
311G)) quantum mechanical methods. The results allowed proper assignments for the frequencies of
the experimentally known, radical cation vibrations. They provided pre estimation of the radical anion
frequencies. Comparison is done for the frequencies of the ions with those of the neutral Corannulene
molecules.

Theoretical test for chirality's in negative parity states of Rhodium (Rh)-105

Nabeil I. Fawaz

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2011, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2011.15502

The chirality in the negative-parity levels in 105Rh nucleus has been examined by the theoretical model Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM). The IBFM succeed in prediction the negative parity excitation energy in the 105Rh nucleus. Including high-j orbits in the IBFM calculations or not gave nearly the same behavior. This nucleus could have static chirality but not vibration chirality. The negative parity bands dose not show the ideal chiral symmetry.