: A number of physical and chemical ambient water characteristics of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were studied on a monthly basis over the year (2011). Samples through 61 sampling station was collected, which distributed by 39 stations along the Tigris river and 22 station along the Euphrates river. Samples collected were analyzed to find a number of variables. The variables measured include cations group (Ca, Mg Mg, Na Na), anions group (Cl, SO4), nitrate NO3, phosphate PO4, total dissolved solids TDS, in addition to measuring pH.Data were analyzed statistically to extract the results. Results showed that average concentrations of calcium ions to the Tigris River 69 mg /L, and the Euphrates River 139 mg /L. The average concentration of magnesium ions of the Tigris River is 34 mg /L, while of the Euphrates River is 67 mg /L. Average concentration of sodium ions of the Tigris River is 58 mg /L, and the Euphrates River is 247 mg /L. Average concentration of sulfate ions of the Tigris River is 154 mg /L, and the Euphrates River is 425 mg /L. Average concentration of chloride ions of the Tigris River is 98 mg / L, and the Average of the Euphrates River is 375 mg /L. Average concentration of nitrate ions of the Tigris River is 3.48 mg /L and the same average value registered to the Euphrates River. Phosphate ions concentration rate of the Tigris River is 0.24 mg / L, and the Euphrates River is 0.20 mg /L. Average concentration of total dissolved solids of the Tigris River is 530 mg / L, while the Euphrates River is 1419 mg /L. Average pH value of the water for the Tigris River is 7.6 and 7.8 for Euphrates River. Water quality of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers varies from one section to another. Water quality is better in the upstream sections of the rivers. There is a general trend to increase salinity and degradation of water quality whenever river stream Turn south because of decreasing water level and accumulation of pollution loads. Water quality of the Tigris generally better than the quality of waters of the Euphrates, where many tributaries supply Tigris river with freshwater inside Iraqi territory while Euphrates River exposed to different effluent inside Syrian territory before entering the Iraqi border. Recorded values of most variables measured of the Euphrates river greater than the values of Tigris River at the beginning of the entry of the rivers into the Iraqi border. Euphrates River compared with the Tigris River was exposed to different effluent discharges especially agricultural discharge in the central and southern regions in addition to changing hydrological conditions.