Document Type : Review Paper


1 Department of Biology, College of Sciences for Women, University of Babylon, Iraq;

2 Consultant Neurosurgeon FRCS Glasg, FRCSED, FRCSE, FACS, FIBMS, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. 2Department of Neurosurgery, Hammurabi College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.

3 School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake’s Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK


Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infects the human upper respiratory, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, in susceptible populations, such as immune-compromised individuals and the elderly, the symptoms develop into more severe diseases (e.g., pneumonia). For a few days now, data reported in the neurological studies have also confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 has neuroinvasive capacities, as it can spread from the respiratory tract to the nervous system (NS), causing encephalitis. Compared to neuroinvasive human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 may damage the nervous system, causing neurological diseases. Opportunistic human SARS-CoV-2 pathogens could be associated with the triggering or the exacerbation of several neurological disorders whose etiology remains poorly understood. In this review, details about human coronaviruses that have been linked to the possibility of developing a disease of the nervous system were illustrated. Three cases of viral encephalitis in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were discussed in this review: one patient presented with encephalopathy; the other patient with acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy. And third patient presented with viral encephalitis following COVID-19 vaccination..


Main Subjects

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