Print ISSN: 1991-8941

Online ISSN: 2706-6703

Volume 16, Issue 2

Volume 16, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2022, Page 1-130

A review article: Drug delivery systems, preparation techniques, and biological applications using nanoemulsion as a novel platform

Sulaf Mohammed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176423

Nanotechnology, particularly nanoemulsions (NEs), is an essential topic that has piqued the interest of researchers over the years. These significant molecules feature a spherical solid structure, a lipophilic amorphous negative charge surface, with small droplet size, and a large surface area, all of which contribute to the promising future of nanomedicine and the importance of NEs in a variety of sectors. The advantages and disadvantages of the components, preparation, characterization, assessment, and applications as a delivery medication system are summarized in this review paper. There are two different methods for NEs preparation: the high and low energy methods. In high energy methods, high-pressure homogenization, ultrasonication micro fluidization, and Spontaneous emulsification are described thoroughly. Low energy approaches emphasize phase inversion temperature, solvent evaporation technology, and hydrogel technologies. Low-energy procedures should be preferred over high-energy methods since they utilize less energy and do not necessitate the use of specific instruments. The transdermal application, aerosolized, ingestible NEs, and parenteral techniques are the four primary lines of biomedical uses of NEs as a delivery strategy. To summarize, these novel strategies are very promising, but additional research is needed to fully understand the relationship between NE formulation and physiological and pathological problems associated with diverse preparation, characterization, and administration routes.

Isolation and identification of the chemical composition of Salvia Species growing in Iraq by GC-MS

Khader Alzawi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176429

In this research, the chemical composition of six species of Salvia were studied, wild grown (Salvia multicaulis, Salvia indica, Salvia spinosa, Salvia reuterana, and Salvia russellii) collected from different cities in the Kurdistan region, and cultured (Salvia officinalis) collected from Ramadi city. Study of the chemical components of the aerial parts (stem and leaves) was achieved by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS), the chemical study showed important variations in the content of chemical compounds and their concentration, the most quantitative chemical compounds in Salvia multicaulis were (9-Octadecenoic acid 20.15%, cis-Vaccenic acid 14.2% and Ethanone 9.24%), in Salvia indica (Methyl β-D-galactopyranoside 18.3%, 9-Octadecenoic acid 17.4%, and cis-Vaccenic acid 11.0%), in Salvia spinosa (Oleic acid 30.1%, 11-Octadecenoic acid 6.4% and β-Eudesmol 6.3%), in Salvia reuterana (9-Octadecenoic acid 19.1%, Oleic acid 13.2% and Hexadecanoic acid 6.41%) in Salvia russellii (N,N,N-Trimethyl-1,4- phenylenediamine 16.5%, Ethyl α-D-glucopyranoside 9.33% ، cis-Vaccenic acid 5.86% ،), and in Salvia officinalis (Camphor 22.84%, 1-Naphthalenepropanol 20.81% and 4-Amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid 9.64%).

Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants in Stressed Plants: A Review

Hiba Abdulfatah

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 25-37
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176435

Plants are exposed to different ecological stress during their life cycle, and because of these tensions, free radicals are shaped. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) have a fundamental ability to support typical plant improvement and stress tolerance. The disruption of the proportionality of ROS generation and antioxidant defense systems is one of the primary effects of biotic and abiotic stress, resulting in an excess of ROS buildup and oxidative damage  in plants. Plants may combat this issue by producing ROS-neutralizing compounds, and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms maintain the proper ratio between ROS generation and detoxification. Ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH), flavonoids, Vitamin E (α-tocopherols), and carotenoids are crucial non-enzymatic antioxidants in this context, with a high potential for performing a variety of crucial activities in plants under both stressful and unstressful conditions, in addition to scavenging ROS. This review illustrates the main roles of some non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants subjected to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses.

Review Article :Nosocomial infections: types and prevalence

Shaymaa H.M Al-kubaisy; Ban Hamid Khalaf; Evan Latef Khaleef

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176438

One of the most problematic health issues nowadays is the prevalence of nosocomial diseases which is one of the most important health problems in the world and till now there are no series solutions. There are several types of nosocomial infection such as; Infections of the bloodstream caused by a central line (CLABSI), Infections of the Urinary Tract Caused by Catheters (CAUTI), Infections at the Site of Surgery (SSI), and Pneumonia linked with Ventilators (VAP).
All these types caused by one or more type of biological agent such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. Uncontrolled use of drugs and disregard for health preventative techniques will result in significant health troubles, such as an increase in antibiotic resistance, which the medical community views as a major concern. The most urgent problem facing the medical profession at the moment is the existence of bacteria with genetic traits that allow them to resist antibiotics. It is now necessary to utilize extra antibiotics or a combination of antibiotics to treat many straightforward illnesses that could previously be treated with simple antibiotics.
To lessen the harmful repercussions that might arise in the future from failing to pay attention to this problem, several efforts and activities must be done to restrict the spread of nosocomial diseases. Also, should awareness the people to avoid using antibiotics unless absolutely essential. On the other hand, it would be advisable to pass legislation requiring a prescription from a licensed medical expert before any prescriptions may be filled at a pharmacy or drug store.

A critical review of organic pollutants in Refinery wastewater by advanced oxidation processes

Ali Al-Sadoon; Ekhlas Salman; Mustafa Mohammed

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176467

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), for instance Ozone, Fenton process, photo Fenton, photolysis, photo-catalysis, and photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and photolysis of ozone have remained inspected widely aimed at the elimination of a wide variety of organic pollutants (OPs).  AOP without UV might not attain complete elimination of a comprehensive group of OPS. When combined with UV, AOPs produce additional free radicals, consequently execution improved squalor of the OPS. This review briefly deliberates the individual AOPs and their limits in the direction of the squalor of OPS comprising diverse useful collections. It too categorizes AOPs and lengthily clarifies their efficiency aimed at the squalor of a wide variety of OPS. Underneath suitable circumstances, AOPs not solitary initiate squalor nonetheless might too principal to whole mineralization. Numerous issues can affect the competence of procedures counting the chemistry of water and the organic molecular structure for instance, the attendance of organic content in water can have an important influence. In general, these organic also change toward high redox possible radicals upon crash with additional reactive species and upsurge the rates of reaction, or might performance by way of radical scavengers and reduction the development competence

phi meson electroproduction at low transferred momentum

Afraa Kanaan; Khalid Hamad; Ali Alzubadi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 58-62
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176471

 The electroproduction of phi meson is analyzed. The  amplitude consist of two terms, the soft and the hard pomeron terms. it is assumed, that both pomerons are Regge poles. In the present approach, the two pomeron amplitude for the photoproduction processes is extended to construct an amplitude for the electroproduction processes by introducing the photon virtual mass ( . The  residues of the two poles become functions of ( . These functions are extracted by fitting the differential cross section (  )  of the extended  model at constant energy  to the experimental data using the chi- square method. At each , the hard and the soft terms are multiplied by the factors  and  to match the data. The vertices of the pomeron coupling to the interacting particles are calculated by the dimensions of the vertices which are related to the masses of the interacting particles at each vertex.

A review of computational methods for electron affinity in determined molecules

Adil Ayyash; Dhaidan Kafi; Ahmed N. Ayyash

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176472

Some density function theories ( DFT/ 6 - 311++ G (3 df, 3 pd ) basis set   ) methods  with as  BPV86, B3PV91, B3LYP, LSDA, MPW1PW91, HCTH,  THCTH, PBE1PBE, PBEPBE, and T PSSTPSS  with Hartree– Fock (HF) and Ab initio methods. These calculations were  at  quadratic -  complete basis set (CBS-  Q method ).  Results of these studies  appear that DFT results overestimate  and Hartree– Fock results underestimate of EA’s values as compared  with experimental calculations. Good convergence with experimental studies  of electron affinities  in density functional theory methods. Electron affinities of LiBr, NaBr, F2 and OH diatomic molecules  have been calculated  using   methods above.  The electron affinity values that have been extended using THCTH method are overvalued to OH and F2 compounds and dropped to NaBr and LiBr compounds. Also CBS-Q theory or method provides good calculations for OH, LiBr and NaBr molecules, therefore, the electron affinity result is lower than data in  experiment one, by ( 1 eV) that in cases of  F2  moelcule.

Review Article : Applicable methods of evaluating peak area of gamma ray spectra

Thaer Laftah Al-Musawi; Shawkat Jubair; Zakariya Yahia Sulaiman

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176474

Gamma ray spectra have interesting information about energy and intensity of gamma photons. Normally, this information is available in the peak area and background region. A full energy peak sits on a background continuum and produced by full energy absorption of high energy photons, while background region is produced by Compton scattering of the photons. The most essential concern of errors is in the method of determining the events in both peak and background areas. The uncertainty is low when the background counts are small relative to the peak counts. However, it becomes high when the counts of the peak area are low with respect to that of background. The detection threshold for the peak is ultimately determined by the uncertainty in the background counts. This depends on the technique used and the form of the produced spectra. This paper reviews different methods of determining peak area and their associated uncertainties in terms of the principle and application of the techniques used.

Optimized Trigonometric Spline Function with Conjugate GradientMethod for Solving FDEs

Faraidun Hamasalh; Gulnar W. Sadiq; Emad S. Salam

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 84-91
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176477

We investigate the non-polynomial spline function to solve the fractional differential equations with the conformable conjugate gradient method.  The fractional derivative was described using the Caputo fractional derivative to construct the spline scheme with polynomial fractional order. Therefore, transform the problem to an equivalent iterative linear system that can be solved by Gauss-Seidel and conjugate gradient methods. For the given spline function, error bounds were studied and a stability analysis was completed, the error estimation is also calculated as different values of (n) depend on the step size oh (h). Numerical examples with known analytical solutions are shown to verify the method's accuracy. The outcomes are in satisfactory correlation with the exact answers according to the numerical experiments. Moreover, the convergence analysis was investigated with the drive some theorems. Also, the procedure is explained in depth and supported by computational examples and the results show that the fractional spline function which interpolates data is productive and profitable in solving unique problems and compare with the exact solutions.

On Better Approximation of the Squared Bernstein Polynomials

Rafah Katham; Ali Mohammad

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 92-98
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176478

The present paper is defined a new better approximation of the squared Bernstein polynomials. This better approximation has been built on a positive function  defined on the interval [0,1] which has some properties. First, the moderate uniform convergence theorem for a sequence of linear positive operators (the generalization of the Korovkin theorem) of these polynomials is improved. Then, the rate of convergence of these polynomials corresponding to the first and second modulus of continuity and Ditzian- Totik modulus of smoothness is given. Also, the quantitative Voronovskaja and the Grüss- Voronovskaja theorems are discussed. Finally, some numerically applied for these polynomials are given by choosing a test function  and two different  functions show the effect of the different chosen functions .  It turns the new better approximation of the squared Bernstein polynomials gives us a better numerical result than the numerical results of both the classical Bernstein polynomials and the squared Bernstein polynomials. MSC 2010. 41A10, 41A25, 41A36.

Double Intuitionistic Open Sets with Some Applications

Asmaa Raoof; Taha H. Jassim

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 99-107
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176496

The purpose of this work is to presents a new class of open sets namely Double intuitionistic open sets. The relationships between the Double intuitionistic open and the Double intuitionistic sets are studied including the Double intuitionistic interior set, Double  intuitionistic closure set and Double intuitionistic limit point in Double intuitionistic topological spaces were presented and various examples and many observations were presented for each concept, also the definitions of the paired set were presented in general topological spaces Therefore, we generalize it to the Double intuitionistic topological spaces with the presentation of the basic theorem of this new space, and many of the basic characteristics and properties related to these concepts that are presented in the third section as evidence with many examples, taking into account that the opposite is not true for each evidence for these characteristics, which was presented and what we note in the fourth section.

Central Kurdish Automatic Speech Recognition using Deep Learning

Abdulhady Abdullah; Hadi Veisi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 108-118
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176500

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) as an interesting field of speech processing, is nowadays utilized in real applications which are implemented using various techniques. Amongst them, the artificial neural network is the most popular one. Increasing the performance and making these systems robust to noise are among the current challenges. This paper addresses the development of an ASR system for the Central Kurdish language (CKB) using a transfer learning of Deep Neural Networks (DNN). The combination of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) for extracting features of speech signals, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) with Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) output layer is used to create an Acoustic Model (AM) on the AsoSoft CKB speech dataset.  Also, we have used the N-gram language model on the collected large text dataset which includes about 300 million tokens. The text corpus is also used to extract a dynamic lexicon model that contains over 2.5 million CKB words. The obtained results show that the use of a DNN improves the results compared to classical statistics modules. The proposed method achieves a 0.22%-word error rate by combining transfer learning and language model adaptation. This result is superior to the best-reported result for the CKB.

Central Kurdish Sentiment Analysis Using Deep Learning

Kozhin Awlla; Hadi Veisi

Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 119-130
DOI: 10.37652/juaps.2022.176501

Sentiment Analysis (SA) as a type of opinion mining and as a more general topic than polarity detection, is widely used for analyzing user's reviews or comments of online expressions, which is implemented using various techniques among which the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is the most popular one. This paper addresses the development of an SA system for the Central Kurdish language (CKB) using deep learning. Increasing the efficiency and strengthening of the SA system relies on a robust language model. In addition, for creating and training a robust language model, collecting a large amount of text corpus is required and we have created a corpus of size 300 million tokens for CKB. Also, to train the SA model, we collected 14,881 comments on Facebook, then they are labeled manually. The combination of Word2Vec for the language model and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) for the classifier are used to create an SA model on the CKB SA dataset. These deep learning-based techniques are the most well-known methods in this field which have received high performance in SA for various languages. The performance of the proposed method for 3 classes SA is %71.35 accuracy. This result is superior to the best-reported result for CKB.